/ Refactoring / Code Smells Object-Orientation Abusers All these smells are incomplete or incorrect application of object-oriented programming principles. Switch Statements You have a complex switch operator or sequence of if statements. Temporary Field Temporary fields get their values (and thus are needed by objects) only under certain circumstances. Outside of these circumstances, they’re empty. Refused Bequest If a subclass uses only some of the methods and properties inherited from its parents, the hierarchy is off-kilter. The unneeded methods may simply go unused or be redefined and give off exceptions. Alternative Classes with Different Interfaces Two classes perform identical functions but have different method names.