Hourra ! La version française est enfin sortie ! Laissez-nous un message svp, si vous voulez nous faire part de vos commentaires ou signaler une erreur.

Shotgun Surgery

Shotgun Surgery resembles Divergent Change but is actually the opposite smell. Divergent Change is when many changes are made to a single class. Shotgun Surgery refers to when a single change is made to multiple classes simultaneously.

Signs and Symptoms

Making any modifications requires that you make many small changes to many different classes.

Reasons for the Problem

A single responsibility has been split up among a large number of classes. This can happen after overzealous application of Divergent Change.


  • Use Move Method and Move Field to move existing class behaviors into a single class. If there’s no class appropriate for this, create a new one.

  • If moving code to the same class leaves the original classes almost empty, try to get rid of these now-redundant classes via Inline Class.


  • Better organization.

  • Less code duplication.

  • Easier maintenance.