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Médiateur

Médiateur en Rust

Le Médiateur est un patron de conception comportemental qui diminue le couplage entre les composants d’un programme, en les faisant communiquer indirectement, via un objet médiateur spécial.

Le médiateur rend la modification, l’extension et la réutilisation de composants individuels aisées, car ils ne dépendent plus d’une dizaine de classes.

Top-Down Ownership

Top-Down Ownership approach allows to apply Mediator in Rust as it is a suitable for Rust’s ownership model with strict borrow checker rules. It’s not the only way to implement Mediator, but it’s a fundamental one.

The key point is thinking in terms of OWNERSHIP.

  1. A mediator takes ownership of all components.

  2. A component doesn’t preserve a reference to a mediator. Instead, it gets the reference via a method call.

    // A train gets a mediator object by reference.
    pub trait Train {
        fn name(&self) -> &String;
        fn arrive(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator);
        fn depart(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator);
    }
    
    // Mediator has notification methods.
    pub trait Mediator {
        fn notify_about_arrival(&mut self, train_name: &str) -> bool;
        fn notify_about_departure(&mut self, train_name: &str);
    }
    
  3. Control flow starts from fn main() where the mediator receives external events/commands.

  4. Mediator trait for the interaction between components (notify_about_arrival, notify_about_departure) is not the same as its external API for receiving external events (accept, depart commands from the main loop).

    let train1 = PassengerTrain::new("Train 1");
    let train2 = FreightTrain::new("Train 2");
    
    // Station has `accept` and `depart` methods,
    // but it also implements `Mediator`.
    let mut station = TrainStation::default();
    
    // Station is taking ownership of the trains.
    station.accept(train1);
    station.accept(train2);
    
    // `train1` and `train2` have been moved inside,
    // but we can use train names to depart them.
    station.depart("Train 1");
    station.depart("Train 2");
    station.depart("Train 3");
    
Top-Down Ownership

Extra info

There is a research and discussion of the Mediator pattern in Rust: https://github.com/fadeevab/mediator-pattern-rust

train_station.rs

use std::collections::{HashMap, VecDeque};

use crate::trains::Train;

// Mediator has notification methods.
pub trait Mediator {
    fn notify_about_arrival(&mut self, train_name: &str) -> bool;
    fn notify_about_departure(&mut self, train_name: &str);
}

#[derive(Default)]
pub struct TrainStation {
    trains: HashMap<String, Box<dyn Train>>,
    train_queue: VecDeque<String>,
    train_on_platform: Option<String>,
}

impl Mediator for TrainStation {
    fn notify_about_arrival(&mut self, train_name: &str) -> bool {
        if self.train_on_platform.is_some() {
            self.train_queue.push_back(train_name.into());
            false
        } else {
            self.train_on_platform.replace(train_name.into());
            true
        }
    }

    fn notify_about_departure(&mut self, train_name: &str) {
        if Some(train_name.into()) == self.train_on_platform {
            self.train_on_platform = None;

            if let Some(next_train_name) = self.train_queue.pop_front() {
                let mut next_train = self.trains.remove(&next_train_name).unwrap();
                next_train.arrive(self);
                self.trains.insert(next_train_name.clone(), next_train);

                self.train_on_platform = Some(next_train_name);
            }
        }
    }
}

impl TrainStation {
    pub fn accept(&mut self, mut train: impl Train + 'static) {
        if self.trains.contains_key(train.name()) {
            println!("{} has already arrived", train.name());
            return;
        }

        train.arrive(self);
        self.trains.insert(train.name().clone(), Box::new(train));
    }

    pub fn depart(&mut self, name: &'static str) {
        let train = self.trains.remove(name);
        if let Some(mut train) = train {
            train.depart(self);
        } else {
            println!("'{}' is not on the station!", name);
        }
    }
}

trains/mod.rs

mod freight_train;
mod passenger_train;

pub use freight_train::FreightTrain;
pub use passenger_train::PassengerTrain;

use crate::train_station::Mediator;

// A train gets a mediator object by reference.
pub trait Train {
    fn name(&self) -> &String;
    fn arrive(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator);
    fn depart(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator);
}

trains/freight_train.rs

use super::Train;
use crate::train_station::Mediator;

pub struct FreightTrain {
    name: String,
}

impl FreightTrain {
    pub fn new(name: &'static str) -> Self {
        Self { name: name.into() }
    }
}

impl Train for FreightTrain {
    fn name(&self) -> &String {
        &self.name
    }

    fn arrive(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator) {
        if !mediator.notify_about_arrival(&self.name) {
            println!("Freight train {}: Arrival blocked, waiting", self.name);
            return;
        }

        println!("Freight train {}: Arrived", self.name);
    }

    fn depart(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator) {
        println!("Freight train {}: Leaving", self.name);
        mediator.notify_about_departure(&self.name);
    }
}

trains/passenger_train.rs

use super::Train;
use crate::train_station::Mediator;

pub struct PassengerTrain {
    name: String,
}

impl PassengerTrain {
    pub fn new(name: &'static str) -> Self {
        Self { name: name.into() }
    }
}

impl Train for PassengerTrain {
    fn name(&self) -> &String {
        &self.name
    }

    fn arrive(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator) {
        if !mediator.notify_about_arrival(&self.name) {
            println!("Passenger train {}: Arrival blocked, waiting", self.name);
            return;
        }

        println!("Passenger train {}: Arrived", self.name);
    }

    fn depart(&mut self, mediator: &mut dyn Mediator) {
        println!("Passenger train {}: Leaving", self.name);
        mediator.notify_about_departure(&self.name);
    }
}

main.rs: Client code

mod train_station;
mod trains;

use train_station::TrainStation;
use trains::{FreightTrain, PassengerTrain};

fn main() {
    let train1 = PassengerTrain::new("Train 1");
    let train2 = FreightTrain::new("Train 2");

    // Station has `accept` and `depart` methods,
    // but it also implements `Mediator`.
    let mut station = TrainStation::default();

    // Station is taking ownership of the trains.
    station.accept(train1);
    station.accept(train2);

    // `train1` and `train2` have been moved inside,
    // but we can use train names to depart them.
    station.depart("Train 1");
    station.depart("Train 2");
    station.depart("Train 3");
}

Output

Passenger train Train 1: Arrived
Freight train Train 2: Arrival blocked, waiting
Passenger train Train 1: Leaving
Freight train Train 2: Arrived
Freight train Train 2: Leaving
'Train 3' is not on the station!

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