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Mémento

Mémento en TypeScript

Le Mémento est un patron de conception comportemental qui permet de prendre des instantanés de l’état d’un objet et de les restaurer plus tard.

Le mémento ne compromet pas l’intégrité de la structure interne de l’objet avec lequel il interagit, ni celle des données contenues dans l’instantané.

Utilisation du patron de conception en TypeScript

Complexité :

Popularité :

Exemples d’utilisation : Le principe du mémento peut être imité en utilisant la sérialisation, ce qui est assez commun en TypeScript. Ce n’est pas forcément la manière la plus efficace de prendre des instantanés de l’état d’un objet, mais il permet de stocker des sauvegardes de l’état tout en protégeant la structure du créateur des autres objets.

Exemple conceptuel

Dans cet exemple, nous allons voir la structure du Mémento et répondre aux questions suivantes :

  • Que contiennent les classes ?
  • Quels rôles jouent-elles ?
  • Comment les éléments du patron sont-ils reliés ?

index.ts: Exemple conceptuel

/**
 * The Originator holds some important state that may change over time. It also
 * defines a method for saving the state inside a memento and another method for
 * restoring the state from it.
 */
class Originator {
    /**
     * For the sake of simplicity, the originator's state is stored inside a
     * single variable.
     */
    private state: string;

    constructor(state: string) {
        this.state = state;
        console.log(`Originator: My initial state is: ${state}`);
    }

    /**
     * The Originator's business logic may affect its internal state. Therefore,
     * the client should backup the state before launching methods of the
     * business logic via the save() method.
     */
    public doSomething(): void {
        console.log('Originator: I\'m doing something important.');
        this.state = this.generateRandomString(30);
        console.log(`Originator: and my state has changed to: ${this.state}`);
    }

    private generateRandomString(length: number = 10): string {
        const charSet = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ';

        return Array
            .apply(null, { length })
            .map(() => charSet.charAt(Math.floor(Math.random() * charSet.length)))
            .join('');
    }

    /**
     * Saves the current state inside a memento.
     */
    public save(): Memento {
        return new ConcreteMemento(this.state);
    }

    /**
     * Restores the Originator's state from a memento object.
     */
    public restore(memento: Memento): void {
        this.state = memento.getState();
        console.log(`Originator: My state has changed to: ${this.state}`);
    }
}

/**
 * The Memento interface provides a way to retrieve the memento's metadata, such
 * as creation date or name. However, it doesn't expose the Originator's state.
 */
interface Memento {
    getState(): string;

    getName(): string;

    getDate(): string;
}

/**
 * The Concrete Memento contains the infrastructure for storing the Originator's
 * state.
 */
class ConcreteMemento implements Memento {
    private state: string;

    private date: string;

    constructor(state: string) {
        this.state = state;
        this.date = new Date().toISOString().slice(0, 19).replace('T', ' ');
    }

    /**
     * The Originator uses this method when restoring its state.
     */
    public getState(): string {
        return this.state;
    }

    /**
     * The rest of the methods are used by the Caretaker to display metadata.
     */
    public getName(): string {
        return `${this.date} / (${this.state.substr(0, 9)}...)`;
    }

    public getDate(): string {
        return this.date;
    }
}

/**
 * The Caretaker doesn't depend on the Concrete Memento class. Therefore, it
 * doesn't have access to the originator's state, stored inside the memento. It
 * works with all mementos via the base Memento interface.
 */
class Caretaker {
    private mementos: Memento[] = [];

    private originator: Originator;

    constructor(originator: Originator) {
        this.originator = originator;
    }

    public backup(): void {
        console.log('\nCaretaker: Saving Originator\'s state...');
        this.mementos.push(this.originator.save());
    }

    public undo(): void {
        if (!this.mementos.length) {
            return;
        }
        const memento = this.mementos.pop();

        console.log(`Caretaker: Restoring state to: ${memento.getName()}`);
        this.originator.restore(memento);
    }

    public showHistory(): void {
        console.log('Caretaker: Here\'s the list of mementos:');
        for (const memento of this.mementos) {
            console.log(memento.getName());
        }
    }
}

/**
 * Client code.
 */
const originator = new Originator('Super-duper-super-puper-super.');
const caretaker = new Caretaker(originator);

caretaker.backup();
originator.doSomething();

caretaker.backup();
originator.doSomething();

caretaker.backup();
originator.doSomething();

console.log('');
caretaker.showHistory();

console.log('\nClient: Now, let\'s rollback!\n');
caretaker.undo();

console.log('\nClient: Once more!\n');
caretaker.undo();

Output.txt: Résultat de l’exécution

Originator: My initial state is: Super-duper-super-puper-super.

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: qXqxgTcLSCeLYdcgElOghOFhPGfMxo

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: iaVCJVryJwWwbipieensfodeMSWvUY

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: oSUxsOCiZEnohBMQEjwnPWJLGnwGmy

Caretaker: Here's the list of mementos:
2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (Super-dup...)
2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (qXqxgTcLS...)
2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (iaVCJVryJ...)

Client: Now, let's rollback!

Caretaker: Restoring state to: 2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (iaVCJVryJ...)
Originator: My state has changed to: iaVCJVryJwWwbipieensfodeMSWvUY

Client: Once more!

Caretaker: Restoring state to: 2019-02-17 15:14:05 / (qXqxgTcLS...)
Originator: My state has changed to: qXqxgTcLSCeLYdcgElOghOFhPGfMxo

Mémento dans les autres langues

Patrons de conception : Mémento en Java Patrons de conception : Mémento en C# Patrons de conception : Mémento en C++ Patrons de conception : Mémento en PHP Patrons de conception : Mémento en Python Patrons de conception : Mémento en Ruby Patrons de conception : Mémento en Swift Patrons de conception : Mémento en Go