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Poids mouche

Poids mouche en C++

Le poids mouche est un patron de conception structurel qui permet à des programmes de limiter leur consommation de mémoire malgré un très grand nombre d’objets.

Ce patron est obtenu en partageant des parties de l’état d’un objet à plusieurs autres objets. En d’autres termes, le poids mouche économise de la RAM en mettant en cache les données identiques chez différents objets.

Utilisation du patron de conception en C++

Complexité :

Popularité :

Exemples d’utilisation : Le poids mouche n’a qu’une seule utilité : minimiser l’utilisation de la mémoire. Si votre programme ne rencontre aucun problème de RAM, ignorez ce patron pour le moment.

Identification : Le poids mouche peut être reconnu par une méthode de création qui renvoie des objets du cache plutôt que d’en créer de nouveaux.

Exemple conceptuel

Dans cet exemple, nous allons voir la structure du Poids mouche. Nous allons répondre aux questions suivantes :

  • Que contiennent les classes ?
  • Quels rôles jouent-elles ?
  • Comment les éléments du patron sont-ils reliés ?

main.cc: Exemple conceptuel

/**
 * Flyweight Design Pattern
 *
 * Intent: Lets you fit more objects into the available amount of RAM by sharing
 * common parts of state between multiple objects, instead of keeping all of the
 * data in each object.
 */

struct SharedState
{
    std::string brand_;
    std::string model_;
    std::string color_;

    SharedState(const std::string &brand, const std::string &model, const std::string &color)
        : brand_(brand), model_(model), color_(color)
    {
    }

    friend std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const SharedState &ss)
    {
        return os << "[ " << ss.brand_ << " , " << ss.model_ << " , " << ss.color_ << " ]";
    }
};

struct UniqueState
{
    std::string owner_;
    std::string plates_;

    UniqueState(const std::string &owner, const std::string &plates)
        : owner_(owner), plates_(plates)
    {
    }

    friend std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const UniqueState &us)
    {
        return os << "[ " << us.owner_ << " , " << us.plates_ << " ]";
    }
};

/**
 * The Flyweight stores a common portion of the state (also called intrinsic
 * state) that belongs to multiple real business entities. The Flyweight accepts
 * the rest of the state (extrinsic state, unique for each entity) via its
 * method parameters.
 */
class Flyweight
{
private:
    SharedState *shared_state_;

public:
    Flyweight(const SharedState *shared_state) : shared_state_(new SharedState(*shared_state))
    {
    }
    Flyweight(const Flyweight &other) : shared_state_(new SharedState(*other.shared_state_))
    {
    }
    ~Flyweight()
    {
        delete shared_state_;
    }
    SharedState *shared_state() const
    {
        return shared_state_;
    }
    void Operation(const UniqueState &unique_state) const
    {
        std::cout << "Flyweight: Displaying shared (" << *shared_state_ << ") and unique (" << unique_state << ") state.\n";
    }
};
/**
 * The Flyweight Factory creates and manages the Flyweight objects. It ensures
 * that flyweights are shared correctly. When the client requests a flyweight,
 * the factory either returns an existing instance or creates a new one, if it
 * doesn't exist yet.
 */
class FlyweightFactory
{
    /**
     * @var Flyweight[]
     */
private:
    std::unordered_map<std::string, Flyweight> flyweights_;
    /**
     * Returns a Flyweight's string hash for a given state.
     */
    std::string GetKey(const SharedState &ss) const
    {
        return ss.brand_ + "_" + ss.model_ + "_" + ss.color_;
    }

public:
    FlyweightFactory(std::initializer_list<SharedState> share_states)
    {
        for (const SharedState &ss : share_states)
        {
            this->flyweights_.insert(std::make_pair<std::string, Flyweight>(this->GetKey(ss), Flyweight(&ss)));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns an existing Flyweight with a given state or creates a new one.
     */
    Flyweight GetFlyweight(const SharedState &shared_state)
    {
        std::string key = this->GetKey(shared_state);
        if (this->flyweights_.find(key) == this->flyweights_.end())
        {
            std::cout << "FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.\n";
            this->flyweights_.insert(std::make_pair(key, Flyweight(&shared_state)));
        }
        else
        {
            std::cout << "FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.\n";
        }
        return this->flyweights_.at(key);
    }
    void ListFlyweights() const
    {
        size_t count = this->flyweights_.size();
        std::cout << "\nFlyweightFactory: I have " << count << " flyweights:\n";
        for (std::pair<std::string, Flyweight> pair : this->flyweights_)
        {
            std::cout << pair.first << "\n";
        }
    }
};

// ...
void AddCarToPoliceDatabase(
    FlyweightFactory &ff, const std::string &plates, const std::string &owner,
    const std::string &brand, const std::string &model, const std::string &color)
{
    std::cout << "\nClient: Adding a car to database.\n";
    const Flyweight &flyweight = ff.GetFlyweight({brand, model, color});
    // The client code either stores or calculates extrinsic state and passes it
    // to the flyweight's methods.
    flyweight.Operation({plates, owner});
}

/**
 * The client code usually creates a bunch of pre-populated flyweights in the
 * initialization stage of the application.
 */

int main()
{
    FlyweightFactory *factory = new FlyweightFactory({{"Chevrolet", "Camaro2018", "pink"}, {"Mercedes Benz", "C300", "black"}, {"Mercedes Benz", "C500", "red"}, {"BMW", "M5", "red"}, {"BMW", "X6", "white"}});
    factory->ListFlyweights();

    AddCarToPoliceDatabase(*factory,
                            "CL234IR",
                            "James Doe",
                            "BMW",
                            "M5",
                            "red");

    AddCarToPoliceDatabase(*factory,
                            "CL234IR",
                            "James Doe",
                            "BMW",
                            "X1",
                            "red");
    factory->ListFlyweights();
    delete factory;

    return 0;
}

Output.txt: Résultat de l’exécution

FlyweightFactory: I have 5 flyweights:
BMW_X6_white
Mercedes Benz_C500_red
Mercedes Benz_C300_black
BMW_M5_red
Chevrolet_Camaro2018_pink

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.
Flyweight: Displaying shared ([ BMW , M5 , red ]) and unique ([ CL234IR , James Doe ]) state.

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.
Flyweight: Displaying shared ([ BMW , X1 , red ]) and unique ([ CL234IR , James Doe ]) state.

FlyweightFactory: I have 6 flyweights:
BMW_X1_red
Mercedes Benz_C300_black
BMW_X6_white
Mercedes Benz_C500_red
BMW_M5_red
Chevrolet_Camaro2018_pink

Poids mouche dans les autres langues

Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en Java Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en C# Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en PHP Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en Python Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en Ruby Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en Swift Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en TypeScript Patrons de conception : Poids mouche en Go