やった!遂に日本語版がリリースされました!ご意見、ご感想、誤記・誤植などのご報告は、メッセージを送信してください。
Flyweight

Flyweight を C++ で

Flyweight 構造に関するデザインパターンの一つで メモリー消費量を低く抑えることで プログラムが膨大な数のオブジェクトを支えることができるようにします

複数のオブジェクト間でオブジェクトの状態の一部を共有することにより これを実現します つまり Flyweight は 異なるオブジェクトによって使われる同じデータをキャッシュすることにより RAM を節約します

複雑度

人気度

使用例 Flyweight の目的はただ一つです メモリー摂取を最小にする もしご自分のプログラムが RAM 不足で困っていない場合は このパターンのことはしばらく忘れて大丈夫です

見つけ方 Flyweight は 新規オブジェクトの代わりにキャッシュされたオブジェクトを返す生成メソッドの存在により識別できます

概念的な例

この例は Flyweight デザインパターンの構造を説明するためのものです 以下の質問に答えることを目的としています

  • どういうクラスからできているか
  • それぞれのクラスの役割は
  • パターンの要素同士はどう関係しているのか

main.cc: 概念的な例

/**
 * Flyweight Design Pattern
 *
 * Intent: Lets you fit more objects into the available amount of RAM by sharing
 * common parts of state between multiple objects, instead of keeping all of the
 * data in each object.
 */

struct SharedState
{
    std::string brand_;
    std::string model_;
    std::string color_;

    SharedState(const std::string &brand, const std::string &model, const std::string &color)
        : brand_(brand), model_(model), color_(color)
    {
    }

    friend std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const SharedState &ss)
    {
        return os << "[ " << ss.brand_ << " , " << ss.model_ << " , " << ss.color_ << " ]";
    }
};

struct UniqueState
{
    std::string owner_;
    std::string plates_;

    UniqueState(const std::string &owner, const std::string &plates)
        : owner_(owner), plates_(plates)
    {
    }

    friend std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const UniqueState &us)
    {
        return os << "[ " << us.owner_ << " , " << us.plates_ << " ]";
    }
};

/**
 * The Flyweight stores a common portion of the state (also called intrinsic
 * state) that belongs to multiple real business entities. The Flyweight accepts
 * the rest of the state (extrinsic state, unique for each entity) via its
 * method parameters.
 */
class Flyweight
{
private:
    SharedState *shared_state_;

public:
    Flyweight(const SharedState *shared_state) : shared_state_(new SharedState(*shared_state))
    {
    }
    Flyweight(const Flyweight &other) : shared_state_(new SharedState(*other.shared_state_))
    {
    }
    ~Flyweight()
    {
        delete shared_state_;
    }
    SharedState *shared_state() const
    {
        return shared_state_;
    }
    void Operation(const UniqueState &unique_state) const
    {
        std::cout << "Flyweight: Displaying shared (" << *shared_state_ << ") and unique (" << unique_state << ") state.\n";
    }
};
/**
 * The Flyweight Factory creates and manages the Flyweight objects. It ensures
 * that flyweights are shared correctly. When the client requests a flyweight,
 * the factory either returns an existing instance or creates a new one, if it
 * doesn't exist yet.
 */
class FlyweightFactory
{
    /**
     * @var Flyweight[]
     */
private:
    std::unordered_map<std::string, Flyweight> flyweights_;
    /**
     * Returns a Flyweight's string hash for a given state.
     */
    std::string GetKey(const SharedState &ss) const
    {
        return ss.brand_ + "_" + ss.model_ + "_" + ss.color_;
    }

public:
    FlyweightFactory(std::initializer_list<SharedState> share_states)
    {
        for (const SharedState &ss : share_states)
        {
            this->flyweights_.insert(std::make_pair<std::string, Flyweight>(this->GetKey(ss), Flyweight(&ss)));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns an existing Flyweight with a given state or creates a new one.
     */
    Flyweight GetFlyweight(const SharedState &shared_state)
    {
        std::string key = this->GetKey(shared_state);
        if (this->flyweights_.find(key) == this->flyweights_.end())
        {
            std::cout << "FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.\n";
            this->flyweights_.insert(std::make_pair(key, Flyweight(&shared_state)));
        }
        else
        {
            std::cout << "FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.\n";
        }
        return this->flyweights_.at(key);
    }
    void ListFlyweights() const
    {
        size_t count = this->flyweights_.size();
        std::cout << "\nFlyweightFactory: I have " << count << " flyweights:\n";
        for (std::pair<std::string, Flyweight> pair : this->flyweights_)
        {
            std::cout << pair.first << "\n";
        }
    }
};

// ...
void AddCarToPoliceDatabase(
    FlyweightFactory &ff, const std::string &plates, const std::string &owner,
    const std::string &brand, const std::string &model, const std::string &color)
{
    std::cout << "\nClient: Adding a car to database.\n";
    const Flyweight &flyweight = ff.GetFlyweight({brand, model, color});
    // The client code either stores or calculates extrinsic state and passes it
    // to the flyweight's methods.
    flyweight.Operation({owner, plates});
}

/**
 * The client code usually creates a bunch of pre-populated flyweights in the
 * initialization stage of the application.
 */

int main()
{
    FlyweightFactory *factory = new FlyweightFactory({{"Chevrolet", "Camaro2018", "pink"}, {"Mercedes Benz", "C300", "black"}, {"Mercedes Benz", "C500", "red"}, {"BMW", "M5", "red"}, {"BMW", "X6", "white"}});
    factory->ListFlyweights();

    AddCarToPoliceDatabase(*factory,
                            "CL234IR",
                            "James Doe",
                            "BMW",
                            "M5",
                            "red");

    AddCarToPoliceDatabase(*factory,
                            "CL234IR",
                            "James Doe",
                            "BMW",
                            "X1",
                            "red");
    factory->ListFlyweights();
    delete factory;

    return 0;
}

Output.txt: 実行結果

FlyweightFactory: I have 5 flyweights:
BMW_X6_white
Mercedes Benz_C500_red
Mercedes Benz_C300_black
BMW_M5_red
Chevrolet_Camaro2018_pink

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.
Flyweight: Displaying shared ([ BMW , M5 , red ]) and unique ([ CL234IR , James Doe ]) state.

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.
Flyweight: Displaying shared ([ BMW , X1 , red ]) and unique ([ CL234IR , James Doe ]) state.

FlyweightFactory: I have 6 flyweights:
BMW_X1_red
Mercedes Benz_C300_black
BMW_X6_white
Mercedes Benz_C500_red
BMW_M5_red
Chevrolet_Camaro2018_pink

他言語での Flyweight

Flyweight を C# で Flyweight を Go で Flyweight を Java で Flyweight を PHP で Flyweight を Python で Flyweight を Ruby で Flyweight を Rust で Flyweight を Swift で Flyweight を TypeScript で