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Flyweight

Flyweight を C# で

Flyweight 構造に関するデザインパターンの一つで メモリー消費量を低く抑えることで プログラムが膨大な数のオブジェクトを支えることができるようにします

複数のオブジェクト間でオブジェクトの状態の一部を共有することにより これを実現します つまり Flyweight は 異なるオブジェクトによって使われる同じデータをキャッシュすることにより RAM を節約します

複雑度

人気度

使用例 Flyweight の目的はただ一つです メモリー摂取を最小にする もしご自分のプログラムが RAM 不足で困っていない場合は このパターンのことはしばらく忘れて大丈夫です

見つけ方 Flyweight は 新規オブジェクトの代わりにキャッシュされたオブジェクトを返す生成メソッドの存在により識別できます

概念的な例

この例は Flyweight デザインパターンの構造を説明するためのものです 以下の質問に答えることを目的としています

  • どういうクラスからできているか
  • それぞれのクラスの役割は
  • パターンの要素同士はどう関係しているのか

Program.cs: 概念的な例

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
// Use Json.NET library, you can download it from NuGet Package Manager
using Newtonsoft.Json;

namespace RefactoringGuru.DesignPatterns.Flyweight.Conceptual
{
    // The Flyweight stores a common portion of the state (also called intrinsic
    // state) that belongs to multiple real business entities. The Flyweight
    // accepts the rest of the state (extrinsic state, unique for each entity)
    // via its method parameters.
    public class Flyweight
    {
        private Car _sharedState;

        public Flyweight(Car car)
        {
            this._sharedState = car;
        }

        public void Operation(Car uniqueState)
        {
            string s = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(this._sharedState);
            string u = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(uniqueState);
            Console.WriteLine($"Flyweight: Displaying shared {s} and unique {u} state.");
        }
    }

    // The Flyweight Factory creates and manages the Flyweight objects. It
    // ensures that flyweights are shared correctly. When the client requests a
    // flyweight, the factory either returns an existing instance or creates a
    // new one, if it doesn't exist yet.
    public class FlyweightFactory
    {
        private List<Tuple<Flyweight, string>> flyweights = new List<Tuple<Flyweight, string>>();

        public FlyweightFactory(params Car[] args)
        {
            foreach (var elem in args)
            {
                flyweights.Add(new Tuple<Flyweight, string>(new Flyweight(elem), this.getKey(elem)));
            }
        }

        // Returns a Flyweight's string hash for a given state.
        public string getKey(Car key)
        {
            List<string> elements = new List<string>();

            elements.Add(key.Model);
            elements.Add(key.Color);
            elements.Add(key.Company);

            if (key.Owner != null && key.Number != null)
            {
                elements.Add(key.Number);
                elements.Add(key.Owner);
            }

            elements.Sort();

            return string.Join("_", elements);
        }

        // Returns an existing Flyweight with a given state or creates a new
        // one.
        public Flyweight GetFlyweight(Car sharedState)
        {
            string key = this.getKey(sharedState);

            if (flyweights.Where(t => t.Item2 == key).Count() == 0)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.");
                this.flyweights.Add(new Tuple<Flyweight, string>(new Flyweight(sharedState), key));
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.");
            }
            return this.flyweights.Where(t => t.Item2 == key).FirstOrDefault().Item1;
        }

        public void listFlyweights()
        {
            var count = flyweights.Count;
            Console.WriteLine($"\nFlyweightFactory: I have {count} flyweights:");
            foreach (var flyweight in flyweights)
            {
                Console.WriteLine(flyweight.Item2);
            }
        }
    }

    public class Car
    {
        public string Owner { get; set; }

        public string Number { get; set; }

        public string Company { get; set; }

        public string Model { get; set; }

        public string Color { get; set; }
    }

    class Program
    {
        static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            // The client code usually creates a bunch of pre-populated
            // flyweights in the initialization stage of the application.
            var factory = new FlyweightFactory(
                new Car { Company = "Chevrolet", Model = "Camaro2018", Color = "pink" },
                new Car { Company = "Mercedes Benz", Model = "C300", Color = "black" },
                new Car { Company = "Mercedes Benz", Model = "C500", Color = "red" },
                new Car { Company = "BMW", Model = "M5", Color = "red" },
                new Car { Company = "BMW", Model = "X6", Color = "white" }
            );
            factory.listFlyweights();

            addCarToPoliceDatabase(factory, new Car {
                Number = "CL234IR",
                Owner = "James Doe",
                Company = "BMW",
                Model = "M5",
                Color = "red"
            });

            addCarToPoliceDatabase(factory, new Car {
                Number = "CL234IR",
                Owner = "James Doe",
                Company = "BMW",
                Model = "X1",
                Color = "red"
            });

            factory.listFlyweights();
        }

        public static void addCarToPoliceDatabase(FlyweightFactory factory, Car car)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\nClient: Adding a car to database.");

            var flyweight = factory.GetFlyweight(new Car {
                Color = car.Color,
                Model = car.Model,
                Company = car.Company
            });

            // The client code either stores or calculates extrinsic state and
            // passes it to the flyweight's methods.
            flyweight.Operation(car);
        }
    }
}

Output.txt: 実行結果

FlyweightFactory: I have 5 flyweights:
Camaro2018_Chevrolet_pink
black_C300_Mercedes Benz
C500_Mercedes Benz_red
BMW_M5_red
BMW_white_X6

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Reusing existing flyweight.
Flyweight: Displaying shared {"Owner":null,"Number":null,"Company":"BMW","Model":"M5","Color":"red"} and unique {"Owner":"James Doe","Number":"CL234IR","Company":"BMW","Model":"M5","Color":"red"} state.

Client: Adding a car to database.
FlyweightFactory: Can't find a flyweight, creating new one.
Flyweight: Displaying shared {"Owner":null,"Number":null,"Company":"BMW","Model":"X1","Color":"red"} and unique {"Owner":"James Doe","Number":"CL234IR","Company":"BMW","Model":"X1","Color":"red"} state.

FlyweightFactory: I have 6 flyweights:
Camaro2018_Chevrolet_pink
black_C300_Mercedes Benz
C500_Mercedes Benz_red
BMW_M5_red
BMW_white_X6
BMW_red_X1

他言語での Flyweight

Flyweight を C++ で Flyweight を Go で Flyweight を Java で Flyweight を PHP で Flyweight を Python で Flyweight を Ruby で Flyweight を Rust で Flyweight を Swift で Flyweight を TypeScript で