¡Hurra! ¡La versión en español se lanzó por fin! Por favor, envíanos un mensaje si quieres compartir tu opinión o reportar un error.
Observer

Observer en Ruby

Observer es un patrón de diseño de comportamiento que permite a un objeto notificar a otros objetos sobre cambios en su estado.

El patrón Observer proporciona una forma de suscribirse y cancelar la subscripción a estos eventos para cualquier objeto que implementa una interfaz suscriptora.

Uso del patrón en Ruby

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: El patrón Observer es bastante habitual en el código Ruby, sobre todo en los componentes GUI. Proporciona una forma de reaccionar a los eventos que suceden en otros objetos, sin acoplarse a sus clases.

Identificación: El patrón puede reconocerse por los métodos de subscripción, que almacenan objetos en una lista, y por las llamadas al método de actualización emitidas a todos los objetos de esa lista.

Ejemplo conceptual

Este ejemplo ilustra la estructura del patrón de diseño Observer. Se centra en responder las siguientes preguntas:

  • ¿De qué clases se compone?
  • ¿Qué papeles juegan esas clases?
  • ¿De qué forma se relacionan los elementos del patrón?

main.rb: Ejemplo conceptual

# The Subject interface declares a set of methods for managing subscribers.
class Subject
  # Attach an observer to the subject.
  def attach(observer)
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end

  # Detach an observer from the subject.
  def detach(observer)
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end

  # Notify all observers about an event.
  def notify
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end
end

# The Subject owns some important state and notifies observers when the state
# changes.
class ConcreteSubject < Subject
  # For the sake of simplicity, the Subject's state, essential to all
  # subscribers, is stored in this variable.
  attr_accessor :state

  # @!attribute observers
  # @return [Array<Observer>] attr_accessor :observers private :observers

  def initialize
    @observers = []
  end

  # List of subscribers. In real life, the list of subscribers can be stored
  # more comprehensively (categorized by event type, etc.).

  # @param [Obserser] observer
  def attach(observer)
    puts 'Subject: Attached an observer.'
    @observers << observer
  end

  # @param [Obserser] observer
  def detach(observer)
    @observers.delete(observer)
  end

  # The subscription management methods.

  # Trigger an update in each subscriber.
  def notify
    puts 'Subject: Notifying observers...'
    @observers.each { |observer| observer.update(self) }
  end

  # Usually, the subscription logic is only a fraction of what a Subject can
  # really do. Subjects commonly hold some important business logic, that
  # triggers a notification method whenever something important is about to
  # happen (or after it).
  def some_business_logic
    puts "\nSubject: I'm doing something important."
    @state = rand(0..10)

    puts "Subject: My state has just changed to: #{@state}"
    notify
  end
end

# The Observer interface declares the update method, used by subjects.
class Observer
  # Receive update from subject.
  def update(_subject)
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end
end

# Concrete Observers react to the updates issued by the Subject they had been
# attached to.

class ConcreteObserverA < Observer
  # @param [Subject] subject
  def update(subject)
    puts 'ConcreteObserverA: Reacted to the event' if subject.state < 3
  end
end

class ConcreteObserverB < Observer
  # @param [Subject] subject
  def update(subject)
    return unless subject.state.zero? || subject.state >= 2

    puts 'ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event'
  end
end

# The client code.

subject = ConcreteSubject.new

observer_a = ConcreteObserverA.new
subject.attach(observer_a)

observer_b = ConcreteObserverB.new
subject.attach(observer_b)

subject.some_business_logic
subject.some_business_logic

subject.detach(observer_a)

subject.some_business_logic

output.txt: Resultado de la ejecución

Subject: Attached an observer.
Subject: Attached an observer.

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 2
Subject: Notifying observers...
ConcreteObserverA: Reacted to the event
ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 10
Subject: Notifying observers...
ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 2
Subject: Notifying observers...
ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event

Observer en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Observer en Java Patrones de diseño: Observer en C# Patrones de diseño: Observer en C++ Patrones de diseño: Observer en PHP Patrones de diseño: Observer en Python Patrones de diseño: Observer en Swift Patrones de diseño: Observer en TypeScript Patrones de diseño: Observer en Go