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Visiteur

Visiteur en Ruby

Le Visiteur est un patron de conception comportemental qui permet d’ajouter de nouveaux comportements à une hiérarchie de classes sans modifier l’existant.

Découvrez pourquoi les visiteurs ne peuvent pas être remplacés par la surcharge de méthodes dans notre article Visiteur et double répartition.

Complexité :

Popularité :

Exemples d’utilisation : Le visiteur n’est pas un patron très répandu en Ruby à cause de sa complexité et de la rareté de ses cas d’utilisation.

Exemple conceptuel

Dans cet exemple, nous allons voir la structure du Visiteur. Nous allons répondre aux questions suivantes :

  • Que contiennent les classes ?
  • Quels rôles jouent-elles ?
  • Comment les éléments du patron sont-ils reliés ?

main.rb: Exemple conceptuel

# The Component interface declares an `accept` method that should take the base
# visitor interface as an argument.
class Component
  # @abstract
  #
  # @param [Visitor] visitor
  def accept(_visitor)
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end
end

# Each Concrete Component must implement the `accept` method in such a way that
# it calls the visitor's method corresponding to the component's class.
class ConcreteComponentA < Component
  # Note that we're calling `visitConcreteComponentA`, which matches the current
  # class name. This way we let the visitor know the class of the component it
  # works with.
  def accept(visitor)
    visitor.visit_concrete_component_a(self)
  end

  # Concrete Components may have special methods that don't exist in their base
  # class or interface. The Visitor is still able to use these methods since
  # it's aware of the component's concrete class.
  def exclusive_method_of_concrete_component_a
    'A'
  end
end

# Same here: visit_concrete_component_b => ConcreteComponentB
class ConcreteComponentB < Component
  # @param [Visitor] visitor
  def accept(visitor)
    visitor.visit_concrete_component_b(self)
  end

  def special_method_of_concrete_component_b
    'B'
  end
end

# The Visitor Interface declares a set of visiting methods that correspond to
# component classes. The signature of a visiting method allows the visitor to
# identify the exact class of the component that it's dealing with.
class Visitor
  # @abstract
  #
  # @param [ConcreteComponentA] element
  def visit_concrete_component_a(_element)
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end

  # @abstract
  #
  # @param [ConcreteComponentB] element
  def visit_concrete_component_b(_element)
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end
end

# Concrete Visitors implement several versions of the same algorithm, which can
# work with all concrete component classes.
#
# You can experience the biggest benefit of the Visitor pattern when using it
# with a complex object structure, such as a Composite tree. In this case, it
# might be helpful to store some intermediate state of the algorithm while
# executing visitor's methods over various objects of the structure.
class ConcreteVisitor1 < Visitor
  def visit_concrete_component_a(element)
    puts "#{element.exclusive_method_of_concrete_component_a} + #{self.class}"
  end

  def visit_concrete_component_b(element)
    puts "#{element.special_method_of_concrete_component_b} + #{self.class}"
  end
end

class ConcreteVisitor2 < Visitor
  def visit_concrete_component_a(element)
    puts "#{element.exclusive_method_of_concrete_component_a} + #{self.class}"
  end

  def visit_concrete_component_b(element)
    puts "#{element.special_method_of_concrete_component_b} + #{self.class}"
  end
end

# The client code can run visitor operations over any set of elements without
# figuring out their concrete classes. The accept operation directs a call to
# the appropriate operation in the visitor object.
def client_code(components, visitor)
  # ...
  components.each do |component|
    component.accept(visitor)
  end
  # ...
end

components = [ConcreteComponentA.new, ConcreteComponentB.new]

puts 'The client code works with all visitors via the base Visitor interface:'
visitor1 = ConcreteVisitor1.new
client_code(components, visitor1)

puts 'It allows the same client code to work with different types of visitors:'
visitor2 = ConcreteVisitor2.new
client_code(components, visitor2)

output.txt: Résultat de l’exécution

The client code works with all visitors via the base Visitor interface:
A + ConcreteVisitor1
B + ConcreteVisitor1
It allows the same client code to work with different types of visitors:
A + ConcreteVisitor2
B + ConcreteVisitor2

Visiteur dans les autres langues

Visiteur en C# Visiteur en C++ Visiteur en Go Visiteur en Java Visiteur en PHP Visiteur en Python Visiteur en Rust Visiteur en Swift Visiteur en TypeScript