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Memento

Memento en Python

Memento es un patrón de diseño de comportamiento que permite tomar instantáneas del estado de un objeto y restaurarlo en el futuro.

El patrón Memento no compromete la estructura interna del objeto con el que trabaja, ni la información que se encuentra dentro de las instantáneas.

Uso del patrón en Python

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: El principio del patrón Memento puede cumplirse utilizando la serialización, que es bastante habitual en Python. Aunque no es la única forma ni la más efectiva de realizar instantáneas del estado de un objeto, permite almacenar copias de seguridad del estado mientras protege de otros objetos la estructura del originador.

Ejemplo conceptual

Este ejemplo ilustra la estructura del patrón de diseño Memento. Se centra en responder las siguientes preguntas:

  • ¿De qué clases se compone?
  • ¿Qué papeles juegan esas clases?
  • ¿De qué forma se relacionan los elementos del patrón?

main.py: Ejemplo conceptual

from __future__ import annotations
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod
from datetime import datetime
from random import sample
from string import ascii_letters, digits


class Originator():
    """
    The Originator holds some important state that may change over time. It also
    defines a method for saving the state inside a memento and another method
    for restoring the state from it.
    """

    _state = None
    """
    For the sake of simplicity, the originator's state is stored inside a single
    variable.
    """

    def __init__(self, state: str) -> None:
        self._state = state
        print(f"Originator: My initial state is: {self._state}")

    def do_something(self) -> None:
        """
        The Originator's business logic may affect its internal state.
        Therefore, the client should backup the state before launching methods
        of the business logic via the save() method.
        """

        print("Originator: I'm doing something important.")
        self._state = self._generate_random_string(30)
        print(f"Originator: and my state has changed to: {self._state}")

    def _generate_random_string(self, length: int = 10) -> None:
        return "".join(sample(ascii_letters, length))

    def save(self) -> Memento:
        """
        Saves the current state inside a memento.
        """

        return ConcreteMemento(self._state)

    def restore(self, memento: Memento) -> None:
        """
        Restores the Originator's state from a memento object.
        """

        self._state = memento.get_state()
        print(f"Originator: My state has changed to: {self._state}")


class Memento(ABC):
    """
    The Memento interface provides a way to retrieve the memento's metadata,
    such as creation date or name. However, it doesn't expose the Originator's
    state.
    """

    @abstractmethod
    def get_name(self) -> str:
        pass

    @abstractmethod
    def get_date(self) -> str:
        pass


class ConcreteMemento(Memento):
    def __init__(self, state: str) -> None:
        self._state = state
        self._date = str(datetime.now())[:19]

    def get_state(self) -> str:
        """
        The Originator uses this method when restoring its state.
        """
        return self._state

    def get_name(self) -> str:
        """
        The rest of the methods are used by the Caretaker to display metadata.
        """

        return f"{self._date} / ({self._state[0:9]}...)"

    def get_date(self) -> str:
        return self._date


class Caretaker():
    """
    The Caretaker doesn't depend on the Concrete Memento class. Therefore, it
    doesn't have access to the originator's state, stored inside the memento. It
    works with all mementos via the base Memento interface.
    """

    def __init__(self, originator: Originator) -> None:
        self._mementos = []
        self._originator = originator

    def backup(self) -> None:
        print("\nCaretaker: Saving Originator's state...")
        self._mementos.append(self._originator.save())

    def undo(self) -> None:
        if not len(self._mementos):
            return

        memento = self._mementos.pop()
        print(f"Caretaker: Restoring state to: {memento.get_name()}")
        try:
            self._originator.restore(memento)
        except Exception:
            self.undo()

    def show_history(self) -> None:
        print("Caretaker: Here's the list of mementos:")
        for memento in self._mementos:
            print(memento.get_name())


if __name__ == "__main__":
    originator = Originator("Super-duper-super-puper-super.")
    caretaker = Caretaker(originator)

    caretaker.backup()
    originator.do_something()

    caretaker.backup()
    originator.do_something()

    caretaker.backup()
    originator.do_something()

    print()
    caretaker.show_history()

    print("\nClient: Now, let's rollback!\n")
    caretaker.undo()

    print("\nClient: Once more!\n")
    caretaker.undo()

Output.txt: Resultado de la ejecución

Originator: My initial state is: Super-duper-super-puper-super.

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: wQAehHYOqVSlpEXjyIcgobrxsZUnat

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: lHxNORKcsgMWYnJqoXjVCbQLEIeiSp

Caretaker: Saving Originator's state...
Originator: I'm doing something important.
Originator: and my state has changed to: cvIYsRilNOtwynaKdEZpDCQkFAXVMf

Caretaker: Here's the list of mementos:
2019-01-26 21:11:24 / (Super-dup...)
2019-01-26 21:11:24 / (wQAehHYOq...)
2019-01-26 21:11:24 / (lHxNORKcs...)

Client: Now, let's rollback!

Caretaker: Restoring state to: 2019-01-26 21:11:24 / (lHxNORKcs...)
Originator: My state has changed to: lHxNORKcsgMWYnJqoXjVCbQLEIeiSp

Client: Once more!

Caretaker: Restoring state to: 2019-01-26 21:11:24 / (wQAehHYOq...)
Originator: My state has changed to: wQAehHYOqVSlpEXjyIcgobrxsZUnat

Memento en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Memento en Java Patrones de diseño: Memento en C# Patrones de diseño: Memento en C++ Patrones de diseño: Memento en PHP Patrones de diseño: Memento en Ruby Patrones de diseño: Memento en Swift Patrones de diseño: Memento en TypeScript Patrones de diseño: Memento en Go