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Observer

Observer を TypeScript で

Observer 振る舞いに関するデザインパターンの一つで オブジェクトが別のオブジェクトに状態の変化を通知できるようにします

Observer パターンは サブスクライバー・インターフェースを実装するいかなるオブジェクトのイベント通知の申し込みと停止をする方法を提供します

複雑度

人気度

使用例 Observer パターンは TypeScript コードではよく見かけます 特に GUI コンポーネントで 他のオブジェクトで起きるイベントに そのクラスに結合することなく 反応する方法を提供します

見つけ方 このパターンは オブジェクトをリストに保存するサブスクリプション・メソッドと そのリスト中のオブジェクトの更新メソッドの呼び出しにより 識別できます

概念的な例

この例は Observer デザインパターンの構造を説明するためのものです 以下の質問に答えることを目的としています

  • どういうクラスからできているか
  • それぞれのクラスの役割は
  • パターンの要素同士はどう関係しているのか

index.ts: 概念的な例

/**
 * The Subject interface declares a set of methods for managing subscribers.
 */
interface Subject {
    // Attach an observer to the subject.
    attach(observer: Observer): void;

    // Detach an observer from the subject.
    detach(observer: Observer): void;

    // Notify all observers about an event.
    notify(): void;
}

/**
 * The Subject owns some important state and notifies observers when the state
 * changes.
 */
class ConcreteSubject implements Subject {
    /**
     * @type {number} For the sake of simplicity, the Subject's state, essential
     * to all subscribers, is stored in this variable.
     */
    public state: number;

    /**
     * @type {Observer[]} List of subscribers. In real life, the list of
     * subscribers can be stored more comprehensively (categorized by event
     * type, etc.).
     */
    private observers: Observer[] = [];

    /**
     * The subscription management methods.
     */
    public attach(observer: Observer): void {
        const isExist = this.observers.includes(observer);
        if (isExist) {
            return console.log('Subject: Observer has been attached already.');
        }

        console.log('Subject: Attached an observer.');
        this.observers.push(observer);
    }

    public detach(observer: Observer): void {
        const observerIndex = this.observers.indexOf(observer);
        if (observerIndex === -1) {
            return console.log('Subject: Nonexistent observer.');
        }

        this.observers.splice(observerIndex, 1);
        console.log('Subject: Detached an observer.');
    }

    /**
     * Trigger an update in each subscriber.
     */
    public notify(): void {
        console.log('Subject: Notifying observers...');
        for (const observer of this.observers) {
            observer.update(this);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Usually, the subscription logic is only a fraction of what a Subject can
     * really do. Subjects commonly hold some important business logic, that
     * triggers a notification method whenever something important is about to
     * happen (or after it).
     */
    public someBusinessLogic(): void {
        console.log('\nSubject: I\'m doing something important.');
        this.state = Math.floor(Math.random() * (10 + 1));

        console.log(`Subject: My state has just changed to: ${this.state}`);
        this.notify();
    }
}

/**
 * The Observer interface declares the update method, used by subjects.
 */
interface Observer {
    // Receive update from subject.
    update(subject: Subject): void;
}

/**
 * Concrete Observers react to the updates issued by the Subject they had been
 * attached to.
 */
class ConcreteObserverA implements Observer {
    public update(subject: Subject): void {
        if (subject instanceof ConcreteSubject && subject.state < 3) {
            console.log('ConcreteObserverA: Reacted to the event.');
        }
    }
}

class ConcreteObserverB implements Observer {
    public update(subject: Subject): void {
        if (subject instanceof ConcreteSubject && (subject.state === 0 || subject.state >= 2)) {
            console.log('ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event.');
        }
    }
}

/**
 * The client code.
 */

const subject = new ConcreteSubject();

const observer1 = new ConcreteObserverA();
subject.attach(observer1);

const observer2 = new ConcreteObserverB();
subject.attach(observer2);

subject.someBusinessLogic();
subject.someBusinessLogic();

subject.detach(observer2);

subject.someBusinessLogic();

Output.txt: 実行結果

Subject: Attached an observer.
Subject: Attached an observer.

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 6
Subject: Notifying observers...
ConcreteObserverB: Reacted to the event.

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 1
Subject: Notifying observers...
ConcreteObserverA: Reacted to the event.
Subject: Detached an observer.

Subject: I'm doing something important.
Subject: My state has just changed to: 5
Subject: Notifying observers...

他言語での Observer

Observer を C# で Observer を C++ で Observer を Go で Observer を Java で Observer を PHP で Observer を Python で Observer を Ruby で Observer を Rust で Observer を Swift で