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프로토타입

C++로 작성된 프로토타입

프로토타입은 객체들​(복잡한 객체 포함)​을 그의 특정 클래스들에 결합하지 않고 복제할 수 있도록 하는 생성 디자인 패턴입니다.

모든 프로토타입 클래스들은 객체들의 구상 클래스들을 알 수 없는 경우에도 해당 객체들을 복사할 수 있도록 하는 공통 인터페이스가 있어야 합니다. 프로토타입 객체들은 전체 복사본들을 생성할 수 있습니다. 왜냐하면 같은 클래스의 객체들은 서로의 비공개 필드들에 접근할 수 있기 때문입니다.

복잡도:

인기도:

식별: 프로토타입은 clone 또는 copy 등의 메서드들의 유무로 식별할 수 있습니다.

개념적인 예시

이 예시는 프로토타입 패턴의 구조를 보여주고 다음 질문에 중점을 둡니다:

  • 패턴은 어떤 클래스들로 구성되어 있나요?
  • 이 클래스들은 어떤 역할을 하나요?
  • 패턴의 요소들은 어떻게 서로 연관되어 있나요?

main.cc: 개념적인 예시

using std::string;

// Prototype Design Pattern
//
// Intent: Lets you copy existing objects without making your code dependent on
// their classes.

enum Type {
  PROTOTYPE_1 = 0,
  PROTOTYPE_2
};

/**
 * The example class that has cloning ability. We'll see how the values of field
 * with different types will be cloned.
 */

class Prototype {
 protected:
  string prototype_name_;
  float prototype_field_;

 public:
  Prototype() {}
  Prototype(string prototype_name)
      : prototype_name_(prototype_name) {
  }
  virtual ~Prototype() {}
  virtual Prototype *Clone() const = 0;
  virtual void Method(float prototype_field) {
    this->prototype_field_ = prototype_field;
    std::cout << "Call Method from " << prototype_name_ << " with field : " << prototype_field << std::endl;
  }
};

/**
 * ConcretePrototype1 is a Sub-Class of Prototype and implement the Clone Method
 * In this example all data members of Prototype Class are in the Stack. If you
 * have pointers in your properties for ex: String* name_ ,you will need to
 * implement the Copy-Constructor to make sure you have a deep copy from the
 * clone method
 */

class ConcretePrototype1 : public Prototype {
 private:
  float concrete_prototype_field1_;

 public:
  ConcretePrototype1(string prototype_name, float concrete_prototype_field)
      : Prototype(prototype_name), concrete_prototype_field1_(concrete_prototype_field) {
  }

  /**
   * Notice that Clone method return a Pointer to a new ConcretePrototype1
   * replica. so, the client (who call the clone method) has the responsability
   * to free that memory. I you have smart pointer knowledge you may prefer to
   * use unique_pointer here.
   */
  Prototype *Clone() const override {
    return new ConcretePrototype1(*this);
  }
};

class ConcretePrototype2 : public Prototype {
 private:
  float concrete_prototype_field2_;

 public:
  ConcretePrototype2(string prototype_name, float concrete_prototype_field)
      : Prototype(prototype_name), concrete_prototype_field2_(concrete_prototype_field) {
  }
  Prototype *Clone() const override {
    return new ConcretePrototype2(*this);
  }
};

/**
 * In PrototypeFactory you have two concrete prototypes, one for each concrete
 * prototype class, so each time you want to create a bullet , you can use the
 * existing ones and clone those.
 */

class PrototypeFactory {
 private:
  std::unordered_map<Type, Prototype *, std::hash<int>> prototypes_;

 public:
  PrototypeFactory() {
    prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_1] = new ConcretePrototype1("PROTOTYPE_1 ", 50.f);
    prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_2] = new ConcretePrototype2("PROTOTYPE_2 ", 60.f);
  }

  /**
   * Be carefull of free all memory allocated. Again, if you have smart pointers
   * knowelege will be better to use it here.
   */

  ~PrototypeFactory() {
    delete prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_1];
    delete prototypes_[Type::PROTOTYPE_2];
  }

  /**
   * Notice here that you just need to specify the type of the prototype you
   * want and the method will create from the object with this type.
   */
  Prototype *CreatePrototype(Type type) {
    return prototypes_[type]->Clone();
  }
};

void Client(PrototypeFactory &prototype_factory) {
  std::cout << "Let's create a Prototype 1\n";

  Prototype *prototype = prototype_factory.CreatePrototype(Type::PROTOTYPE_1);
  prototype->Method(90);
  delete prototype;

  std::cout << "\n";

  std::cout << "Let's create a Prototype 2 \n";

  prototype = prototype_factory.CreatePrototype(Type::PROTOTYPE_2);
  prototype->Method(10);

  delete prototype;
}

int main() {
  PrototypeFactory *prototype_factory = new PrototypeFactory();
  Client(*prototype_factory);
  delete prototype_factory;

  return 0;
}

Output.txt: 실행 결과

Let's create a Prototype 1
Call Method from PROTOTYPE_1  with field : 90

Let's create a Prototype 2 
Call Method from PROTOTYPE_2  with field : 10

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