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Chain of Responsibility

Chain of Responsibility em Python

O Chain of Responsibility é um padrão de projeto comportamental que permite passar a solicitação ao longo da cadeia de handlers em potencial até que um deles lide com a solicitação.

O padrão permite que vários objetos tratem a solicitação sem acoplar a classe remetente às classes concretas dos destinatários. A cadeia pode ser composta dinamicamente em tempo de execução com qualquer handler que siga uma interface de handler padrão.

Complexidade:

Popularidade:

Exemplos de uso: O padrão Chain of Responsibility não é um padrão frequente em um programa Python, pois é relevante apenas quando o código opera com cadeias de objetos.

Identificação: O padrão é reconhecível pelos métodos comportamentais de um grupo de objetos que indiretamente chamam os mesmos métodos em outros objetos, enquanto todos os objetos seguem a interface comum.

Exemplo conceitual

Este exemplo ilustra a estrutura do padrão de projeto Chain of Responsibility. Ele se concentra em responder a estas perguntas:

  • De quais classes ele consiste?
  • Quais papéis essas classes desempenham?
  • De que maneira os elementos do padrão estão relacionados?

main.py: Exemplo conceitual

from __future__ import annotations
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod
from typing import Any, Optional


class Handler(ABC):
    """
    The Handler interface declares a method for building the chain of handlers.
    It also declares a method for executing a request.
    """

    @abstractmethod
    def set_next(self, handler: Handler) -> Handler:
        pass

    @abstractmethod
    def handle(self, request) -> Optional[str]:
        pass


class AbstractHandler(Handler):
    """
    The default chaining behavior can be implemented inside a base handler
    class.
    """

    _next_handler: Handler = None

    def set_next(self, handler: Handler) -> Handler:
        self._next_handler = handler
        # Returning a handler from here will let us link handlers in a
        # convenient way like this:
        # monkey.set_next(squirrel).set_next(dog)
        return handler

    @abstractmethod
    def handle(self, request: Any) -> str:
        if self._next_handler:
            return self._next_handler.handle(request)

        return None


"""
All Concrete Handlers either handle a request or pass it to the next handler in
the chain.
"""


class MonkeyHandler(AbstractHandler):
    def handle(self, request: Any) -> str:
        if request == "Banana":
            return f"Monkey: I'll eat the {request}"
        else:
            return super().handle(request)


class SquirrelHandler(AbstractHandler):
    def handle(self, request: Any) -> str:
        if request == "Nut":
            return f"Squirrel: I'll eat the {request}"
        else:
            return super().handle(request)


class DogHandler(AbstractHandler):
    def handle(self, request: Any) -> str:
        if request == "MeatBall":
            return f"Dog: I'll eat the {request}"
        else:
            return super().handle(request)


def client_code(handler: Handler) -> None:
    """
    The client code is usually suited to work with a single handler. In most
    cases, it is not even aware that the handler is part of a chain.
    """

    for food in ["Nut", "Banana", "Cup of coffee"]:
        print(f"\nClient: Who wants a {food}?")
        result = handler.handle(food)
        if result:
            print(f"  {result}", end="")
        else:
            print(f"  {food} was left untouched.", end="")


if __name__ == "__main__":
    monkey = MonkeyHandler()
    squirrel = SquirrelHandler()
    dog = DogHandler()

    monkey.set_next(squirrel).set_next(dog)

    # The client should be able to send a request to any handler, not just the
    # first one in the chain.
    print("Chain: Monkey > Squirrel > Dog")
    client_code(monkey)
    print("\n")

    print("Subchain: Squirrel > Dog")
    client_code(squirrel)

Output.txt: Resultados da execução

Chain: Monkey > Squirrel > Dog

Client: Who wants a Nut?
  Squirrel: I'll eat the Nut
Client: Who wants a Banana?
  Monkey: I'll eat the Banana
Client: Who wants a Cup of coffee?
  Cup of coffee was left untouched.

Subchain: Squirrel > Dog

Client: Who wants a Nut?
  Squirrel: I'll eat the Nut
Client: Who wants a Banana?
  Banana was left untouched.
Client: Who wants a Cup of coffee?
  Cup of coffee was left untouched.

Chain of Responsibility em outras linguagens

Chain of Responsibility em C# Chain of Responsibility em C++ Chain of Responsibility em Go Chain of Responsibility em Java Chain of Responsibility em PHP Chain of Responsibility em Ruby Chain of Responsibility em Rust Chain of Responsibility em Swift Chain of Responsibility em TypeScript