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Builder

Builder en Ruby

Builder es un patrón de diseño creacional que permite construir objetos complejos paso a paso.

Al contrario que otros patrones creacionales, Builder no necesita que los productos tengan una interfaz común. Esto hace posible crear distintos productos utilizando el mismo proceso de construcción.

Uso del patrón en Ruby

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: El patrón Builder es muy conocido en el mundo Ruby. Resulta especialmente útil cuando debes crear un objeto con muchas opciones posibles de configuración.

Identificación: El patrón Builder se puede reconocer por la clase, que tiene un único método de creación y varios métodos para configurar el objeto resultante. A menudo, los métodos del Builder soportan el encadenamiento (por ejemplo, someBuilder.setValueA(1).setValueB(2).create()).

Ejemplo conceptual

Este ejemplo ilustra la estructura del patrón de diseño Builder. Se centra en responder las siguientes preguntas:

  • ¿De qué clases se compone?
  • ¿Qué papeles juegan esas clases?
  • ¿De qué forma se relacionan los elementos del patrón?

main.rb: Ejemplo conceptual

# The Builder interface specifies methods for creating the different parts of
# the Product objects.
class Builder
  # @abstract
  def produce_part_a
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end

  # @abstract
  def produce_part_b
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end

  # @abstract
  def produce_part_c
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end
end

# The Concrete Builder classes follow the Builder interface and provide specific
# implementations of the building steps. Your program may have several
# variations of Builders, implemented differently.
class ConcreteBuilder1 < Builder
  # A fresh builder instance should contain a blank product object, which is
  # used in further assembly.
  def initialize
    reset
  end

  def reset
    @product = Product1.new
  end

  # Concrete Builders are supposed to provide their own methods for retrieving
  # results. That's because various types of builders may create entirely
  # different products that don't follow the same interface. Therefore, such
  # methods cannot be declared in the base Builder interface (at least in a
  # statically typed programming language).
  #
  # Usually, after returning the end result to the client, a builder instance is
  # expected to be ready to start producing another product. That's why it's a
  # usual practice to call the reset method at the end of the `getProduct`
  # method body. However, this behavior is not mandatory, and you can make your
  # builders wait for an explicit reset call from the client code before
  # disposing of the previous result.
  def product
    product = @product
    reset
    product
  end

  def produce_part_a
    @product.add('PartA1')
  end

  def produce_part_b
    @product.add('PartB1')
  end

  def produce_part_c
    @product.add('PartC1')
  end
end

# It makes sense to use the Builder pattern only when your products are quite
# complex and require extensive configuration.
#
# Unlike in other creational patterns, different concrete builders can produce
# unrelated products. In other words, results of various builders may not always
# follow the same interface.
class Product1
  def initialize
    @parts = []
  end

  # @param [String] part
  def add(part)
    @parts << part
  end

  def list_parts
    print "Product parts: #{@parts.join(', ')}"
  end
end

# The Director is only responsible for executing the building steps in a
# particular sequence. It is helpful when producing products according to a
# specific order or configuration. Strictly speaking, the Director class is
# optional, since the client can control builders directly.
class Director
  # @return [Builder]
  attr_accessor :builder

  def initialize
    @builder = nil
  end

  # The Director works with any builder instance that the client code passes to
  # it. This way, the client code may alter the final type of the newly
  # assembled product.
  def builder=(builder)
    @builder = builder
  end

  # The Director can construct several product variations using the same
  # building steps.

  def build_minimal_viable_product
    @builder.produce_part_a
  end

  def build_full_featured_product
    @builder.produce_part_a
    @builder.produce_part_b
    @builder.produce_part_c
  end
end

# The client code creates a builder object, passes it to the director and then
# initiates the construction process. The end result is retrieved from the
# builder object.

director = Director.new
builder = ConcreteBuilder1.new
director.builder = builder

puts 'Standard basic product: '
director.build_minimal_viable_product
builder.product.list_parts

puts "\n\n"

puts 'Standard full featured product: '
director.build_full_featured_product
builder.product.list_parts

puts "\n\n"

# Remember, the Builder pattern can be used without a Director class.
puts 'Custom product: '
builder.produce_part_a
builder.produce_part_b
builder.product.list_parts

output.txt: Resultado de la ejecución

Standard basic product: 
Product parts: PartA1

Standard full featured product: 
Product parts: PartA1, PartB1, PartC1

Custom product: 
Product parts: PartA1, PartB1

Builder en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Builder en Java Patrones de diseño: Builder en C# Patrones de diseño: Builder en C++ Patrones de diseño: Builder en PHP Patrones de diseño: Builder en Python Patrones de diseño: Builder en Swift Patrones de diseño: Builder en TypeScript Patrones de diseño: Builder en Go