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Builder

Builder en Java

Builder es un patrón de diseño creacional que permite construir objetos complejos paso a paso.

Al contrario que otros patrones creacionales, Builder no necesita que los productos tengan una interfaz común. Esto hace posible crear distintos productos utilizando el mismo proceso de construcción.

Uso del patrón en Java

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: El patrón Builder es muy conocido en el mundo de Java. Resulta especialmente útil cuando debes crear un objeto con muchas opciones posibles de configuración.

El uso del patrón Builder está muy extendido en las principales bibliotecas Java:

Identificación: El patrón Builder se puede reconocer por una clase, que tiene un único método de creación y varios métodos para configurar el objeto resultante. A menudo, los métodos del Builder soportan el encadenamiento (por ejemplo, algúnBuilder->establecerValorA(1)->establecerValorB(2)->crear()).

Fabricación de autos paso a paso

En este ejemplo, el patrón Builder permite la construcción paso a paso de distintos modelos de auto.

El ejemplo muestra también cómo el patrón Builder crea productos de distinto tipo (manual del auto) utilizando los mismos pasos de construcción.

El Director controla el orden de construcción. Sabe qué pasos de construcción invocar para producir éste o aquel modelo de auto. Trabaja con los constructores únicamente a través de su interfaz común. Esto permite pasar distintos tipos de constructores al director.

El resultado final se extrae del objeto constructor porque el director no puede saber el tipo de producto resultante. Sólo el objeto del constructor sabe exactamente lo que construye.

builders

builders/Builder.java: Interfaz común del constructor

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Builder interface defines all possible ways to configure a product.
 */
public interface Builder {
    void setType(Type type);
    void setSeats(int seats);
    void setEngine(Engine engine);
    void setTransmission(Transmission transmission);
    void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer);
    void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator);
}

builders/CarBuilder.java: Constructor de auto

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Concrete builders implement steps defined in the common interface.
 */
public class CarBuilder implements Builder {
    private Type type;
    private int seats;
    private Engine engine;
    private Transmission transmission;
    private TripComputer tripComputer;
    private GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    @Override
    public void setType(Type type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    @Override
    public void setSeats(int seats) {
        this.seats = seats;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEngine(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTransmission(Transmission transmission) {
        this.transmission = transmission;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer) {
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
    }

    @Override
    public void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Car getResult() {
        return new Car(type, seats, engine, transmission, tripComputer, gpsNavigator);
    }
}

builders/CarManualBuilder.java: Constructor de manual de auto

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Manual;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Unlike other creational patterns, Builder can construct unrelated products,
 * which don't have the common interface.
 *
 * In this case we build a user manual for a car, using the same steps as we
 * built a car. This allows to produce manuals for specific car models,
 * configured with different features.
 */
public class CarManualBuilder implements Builder{
    private Type type;
    private int seats;
    private Engine engine;
    private Transmission transmission;
    private TripComputer tripComputer;
    private GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    @Override
    public void setType(Type type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    @Override
    public void setSeats(int seats) {
        this.seats = seats;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEngine(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTransmission(Transmission transmission) {
        this.transmission = transmission;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer) {
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
    }

    @Override
    public void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Manual getResult() {
        return new Manual(type, seats, engine, transmission, tripComputer, gpsNavigator);
    }
}

cars

cars/Car.java: Producto auto

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Car is a product class.
 */
public class Car {
    private final Type type;
    private final int seats;
    private final Engine engine;
    private final Transmission transmission;
    private final TripComputer tripComputer;
    private final GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;
    private double fuel = 0;

    public Car(Type type, int seats, Engine engine, Transmission transmission,
               TripComputer tripComputer, GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.type = type;
        this.seats = seats;
        this.engine = engine;
        this.transmission = transmission;
        if (tripComputer != null) {
            this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
            this.tripComputer.setCar(this);
        }
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Type getType() {
        return type;
    }

    public double getFuel() {
        return fuel;
    }

    public void setFuel(double fuel) {
        this.fuel = fuel;
    }

    public int getSeats() {
        return seats;
    }

    public Engine getEngine() {
        return engine;
    }

    public Transmission getTransmission() {
        return transmission;
    }

    public TripComputer getTripComputer() {
        return tripComputer;
    }

    public GPSNavigator getGpsNavigator() {
        return gpsNavigator;
    }
}

cars/Manual.java: Producto manual

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Car manual is another product. Note that it does not have the same ancestor
 * as a Car. They are not related.
 */
public class Manual {
    private final Type type;
    private final int seats;
    private final Engine engine;
    private final Transmission transmission;
    private final TripComputer tripComputer;
    private final GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    public Manual(Type type, int seats, Engine engine, Transmission transmission,
                  TripComputer tripComputer, GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.type = type;
        this.seats = seats;
        this.engine = engine;
        this.transmission = transmission;
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public String print() {
        String info = "";
        info += "Type of car: " + type + "\n";
        info += "Count of seats: " + seats + "\n";
        info += "Engine: volume - " + engine.getVolume() + "; mileage - " + engine.getMileage() + "\n";
        info += "Transmission: " + transmission + "\n";
        if (this.tripComputer != null) {
            info += "Trip Computer: Functional" + "\n";
        } else {
            info += "Trip Computer: N/A" + "\n";
        }
        if (this.gpsNavigator != null) {
            info += "GPS Navigator: Functional" + "\n";
        } else {
            info += "GPS Navigator: N/A" + "\n";
        }
        return info;
    }
}

cars/Type.java

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

public enum Type {
    CITY_CAR, SPORTS_CAR, SUV
}

components

components/Engine.java: Característica de producto 1

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class Engine {
    private final double volume;
    private double mileage;
    private boolean started;

    public Engine(double volume, double mileage) {
        this.volume = volume;
        this.mileage = mileage;
    }

    public void on() {
        started = true;
    }

    public void off() {
        started = false;
    }

    public boolean isStarted() {
        return started;
    }

    public void go(double mileage) {
        if (started) {
            this.mileage += mileage;
        } else {
            System.err.println("Cannot go(), you must start engine first!");
        }
    }

    public double getVolume() {
        return volume;
    }

    public double getMileage() {
        return mileage;
    }
}

components/GPSNavigator.java: Característica de producto 2

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class GPSNavigator {
    private String route;

    public GPSNavigator() {
        this.route = "221b, Baker Street, London  to Scotland Yard, 8-10 Broadway, London";
    }

    public GPSNavigator(String manualRoute) {
        this.route = manualRoute;
    }

    public String getRoute() {
        return route;
    }
}

components/Transmission.java: Característica de producto 3

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public enum Transmission {
    SINGLE_SPEED, MANUAL, AUTOMATIC, SEMI_AUTOMATIC
}

components/TripComputer.java: Característica de producto 4

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class TripComputer {

    private Car car;

    public void setCar(Car car) {
        this.car = car;
    }

    public void showFuelLevel() {
        System.out.println("Fuel level: " + car.getFuel());
    }

    public void showStatus() {
        if (this.car.getEngine().isStarted()) {
            System.out.println("Car is started");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Car isn't started");
        }
    }
}

director

director/Director.java: El director controla los constructores

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.director;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.Builder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Type;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Director defines the order of building steps. It works with a builder object
 * through common Builder interface. Therefore it may not know what product is
 * being built.
 */
public class Director {

    public void constructSportsCar(Builder builder) {
        builder.setType(Type.SPORTS_CAR);
        builder.setSeats(2);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(3.0, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.SEMI_AUTOMATIC);
        builder.setTripComputer(new TripComputer());
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }

    public void constructCityCar(Builder builder) {
        builder.setType(Type.CITY_CAR);
        builder.setSeats(2);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(1.2, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.AUTOMATIC);
        builder.setTripComputer(new TripComputer());
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }

    public void constructSUV(Builder builder) {
        builder.setType(Type.SUV);
        builder.setSeats(4);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(2.5, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.MANUAL);
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }
}

Demo.java: Código cliente

package refactoring_guru.builder.example;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.CarBuilder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.CarManualBuilder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Manual;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.director.Director;

/**
 * Demo class. Everything comes together here.
 */
public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Director director = new Director();

        // Director gets the concrete builder object from the client
        // (application code). That's because application knows better which
        // builder to use to get a specific product.
        CarBuilder builder = new CarBuilder();
        director.constructSportsCar(builder);

        // The final product is often retrieved from a builder object, since
        // Director is not aware and not dependent on concrete builders and
        // products.
        Car car = builder.getResult();
        System.out.println("Car built:\n" + car.getType());


        CarManualBuilder manualBuilder = new CarManualBuilder();

        // Director may know several building recipes.
        director.constructSportsCar(manualBuilder);
        Manual carManual = manualBuilder.getResult();
        System.out.println("\nCar manual built:\n" + carManual.print());
    }

}

OutputDemo.txt: Resultados de la ejecución

Car built:
SPORTS_CAR

Car manual built:
Type of car: SPORTS_CAR
Count of seats: 2
Engine: volume - 3.0; mileage - 0.0
Transmission: SEMI_AUTOMATIC
Trip Computer: Functional
GPS Navigator: Functional

Builder en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Builder en C# Patrones de diseño: Builder en C++ Patrones de diseño: Builder en PHP Patrones de diseño: Builder en Python Patrones de diseño: Builder en Ruby Patrones de diseño: Builder en Swift Patrones de diseño: Builder en TypeScript Patrones de diseño: Builder en Go