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Builder

Builder を Java で

Builder は生成に関するデザインパターンの一つで 複雑なオブジェクトを段階的に構築することができます

他の生成に関するパターンとは異なり Builder ではプロダクト 訳注 本パターンでは 生成されるモノのことを一般にプロダクトと呼びます が共通のインターフェースを持つ必要はありません このため 同じ構築の手続きを経て 異なるプロダクトを作成することができます

複雑度

人気度

使用例 Builder パターンは Java の世界では よく知られているパターンです 多くの設定オプションを持つオブジェクトを作成する必要がある場合に特に便利です

Builder は Java のコア・ライブラリーで広く使われています

見つけ方 Builder パターンは 一つのクラスが生成メソッドを一つ持ち 結果として得られるオブジェクトの構成を行うメソッドがいくつかあることで識別できます ビルダーのメソッドは 多くの場合連結できます someBuilder.​setValueA(1).​setValueB(2).​create()

段階的な車の生産

この例では Builder パターンを使って 異なる自動車のモデルを段階的に構築します

この例ではまた Builder が同じ構築段階を使って違う種類のプロダクト 車のマニュアル を作る方法も紹介します

ディレクターは 構築の順番を管理します 特定のモデルを生産するためにはどの構築ステップを呼ぶべきかを知っています ビルダーとは共通のインターフェースのみを介して仕事をします このため 型の異なるビルダーをディレクターに渡すことが可能となります

最終的な結果としてのプロダクトは クライントがビルダー・オブジェクトから直接取得します ディレクターは 結果物の型を知らないからです ビルダーだけが正確に何を構築するのかを知っています

builders

builders/Builder.java: 共通のビルダー・インターフェース

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.CarType;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Builder interface defines all possible ways to configure a product.
 */
public interface Builder {
    void setCarType(CarType type);
    void setSeats(int seats);
    void setEngine(Engine engine);
    void setTransmission(Transmission transmission);
    void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer);
    void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator);
}

builders/CarBuilder.java: 車のビルダー

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.CarType;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Concrete builders implement steps defined in the common interface.
 */
public class CarBuilder implements Builder {
    private CarType type;
    private int seats;
    private Engine engine;
    private Transmission transmission;
    private TripComputer tripComputer;
    private GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    public void setCarType(CarType type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    @Override
    public void setSeats(int seats) {
        this.seats = seats;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEngine(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTransmission(Transmission transmission) {
        this.transmission = transmission;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer) {
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
    }

    @Override
    public void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Car getResult() {
        return new Car(type, seats, engine, transmission, tripComputer, gpsNavigator);
    }
}

builders/CarManualBuilder.java: 車のマニュアルのビルダー

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Manual;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.CarType;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Unlike other creational patterns, Builder can construct unrelated products,
 * which don't have the common interface.
 *
 * In this case we build a user manual for a car, using the same steps as we
 * built a car. This allows to produce manuals for specific car models,
 * configured with different features.
 */
public class CarManualBuilder implements Builder{
    private CarType type;
    private int seats;
    private Engine engine;
    private Transmission transmission;
    private TripComputer tripComputer;
    private GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    @Override
    public void setCarType(CarType type) {
        this.type = type;
    }

    @Override
    public void setSeats(int seats) {
        this.seats = seats;
    }

    @Override
    public void setEngine(Engine engine) {
        this.engine = engine;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTransmission(Transmission transmission) {
        this.transmission = transmission;
    }

    @Override
    public void setTripComputer(TripComputer tripComputer) {
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
    }

    @Override
    public void setGPSNavigator(GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public Manual getResult() {
        return new Manual(type, seats, engine, transmission, tripComputer, gpsNavigator);
    }
}

cars

cars/Car.java: 車プロダクト

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Car is a product class.
 */
public class Car {
    private final CarType carType;
    private final int seats;
    private final Engine engine;
    private final Transmission transmission;
    private final TripComputer tripComputer;
    private final GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;
    private double fuel = 0;

    public Car(CarType carType, int seats, Engine engine, Transmission transmission,
               TripComputer tripComputer, GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.carType = carType;
        this.seats = seats;
        this.engine = engine;
        this.transmission = transmission;
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
        if (this.tripComputer != null) {
            this.tripComputer.setCar(this);
        }
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public CarType getCarType() {
        return carType;
    }

    public double getFuel() {
        return fuel;
    }

    public void setFuel(double fuel) {
        this.fuel = fuel;
    }

    public int getSeats() {
        return seats;
    }

    public Engine getEngine() {
        return engine;
    }

    public Transmission getTransmission() {
        return transmission;
    }

    public TripComputer getTripComputer() {
        return tripComputer;
    }

    public GPSNavigator getGpsNavigator() {
        return gpsNavigator;
    }
}

cars/Manual.java: 車マニュアル・プロダクト

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Car manual is another product. Note that it does not have the same ancestor
 * as a Car. They are not related.
 */
public class Manual {
    private final CarType carType;
    private final int seats;
    private final Engine engine;
    private final Transmission transmission;
    private final TripComputer tripComputer;
    private final GPSNavigator gpsNavigator;

    public Manual(CarType carType, int seats, Engine engine, Transmission transmission,
                  TripComputer tripComputer, GPSNavigator gpsNavigator) {
        this.carType = carType;
        this.seats = seats;
        this.engine = engine;
        this.transmission = transmission;
        this.tripComputer = tripComputer;
        this.gpsNavigator = gpsNavigator;
    }

    public String print() {
        String info = "";
        info += "Type of car: " + carType + "\n";
        info += "Count of seats: " + seats + "\n";
        info += "Engine: volume - " + engine.getVolume() + "; mileage - " + engine.getMileage() + "\n";
        info += "Transmission: " + transmission + "\n";
        if (this.tripComputer != null) {
            info += "Trip Computer: Functional" + "\n";
        } else {
            info += "Trip Computer: N/A" + "\n";
        }
        if (this.gpsNavigator != null) {
            info += "GPS Navigator: Functional" + "\n";
        } else {
            info += "GPS Navigator: N/A" + "\n";
        }
        return info;
    }
}

cars/CarType.java

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars;

public enum CarType {
    CITY_CAR, SPORTS_CAR, SUV
}

components

components/Engine.java: プロダクト特性 1

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class Engine {
    private final double volume;
    private double mileage;
    private boolean started;

    public Engine(double volume, double mileage) {
        this.volume = volume;
        this.mileage = mileage;
    }

    public void on() {
        started = true;
    }

    public void off() {
        started = false;
    }

    public boolean isStarted() {
        return started;
    }

    public void go(double mileage) {
        if (started) {
            this.mileage += mileage;
        } else {
            System.err.println("Cannot go(), you must start engine first!");
        }
    }

    public double getVolume() {
        return volume;
    }

    public double getMileage() {
        return mileage;
    }
}

components/GPSNavigator.java: プロダクト特性 2

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class GPSNavigator {
    private String route;

    public GPSNavigator() {
        this.route = "221b, Baker Street, London  to Scotland Yard, 8-10 Broadway, London";
    }

    public GPSNavigator(String manualRoute) {
        this.route = manualRoute;
    }

    public String getRoute() {
        return route;
    }
}

components/Transmission.java: プロダクト特性 3

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public enum Transmission {
    SINGLE_SPEED, MANUAL, AUTOMATIC, SEMI_AUTOMATIC
}

components/TripComputer.java: プロダクト特性 4

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.components;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;

/**
 * Just another feature of a car.
 */
public class TripComputer {

    private Car car;

    public void setCar(Car car) {
        this.car = car;
    }

    public void showFuelLevel() {
        System.out.println("Fuel level: " + car.getFuel());
    }

    public void showStatus() {
        if (this.car.getEngine().isStarted()) {
            System.out.println("Car is started");
        } else {
            System.out.println("Car isn't started");
        }
    }
}

director

director/Director.java: ディレクターがビルダーを管理

package refactoring_guru.builder.example.director;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.Builder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.CarType;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Engine;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.GPSNavigator;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.Transmission;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.components.TripComputer;

/**
 * Director defines the order of building steps. It works with a builder object
 * through common Builder interface. Therefore it may not know what product is
 * being built.
 */
public class Director {

    public void constructSportsCar(Builder builder) {
        builder.setCarType(CarType.SPORTS_CAR);
        builder.setSeats(2);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(3.0, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.SEMI_AUTOMATIC);
        builder.setTripComputer(new TripComputer());
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }

    public void constructCityCar(Builder builder) {
        builder.setCarType(CarType.CITY_CAR);
        builder.setSeats(2);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(1.2, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.AUTOMATIC);
        builder.setTripComputer(new TripComputer());
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }

    public void constructSUV(Builder builder) {
        builder.setCarType(CarType.SUV);
        builder.setSeats(4);
        builder.setEngine(new Engine(2.5, 0));
        builder.setTransmission(Transmission.MANUAL);
        builder.setGPSNavigator(new GPSNavigator());
    }
}

Demo.java: クライアント・コード

package refactoring_guru.builder.example;

import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.CarBuilder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.builders.CarManualBuilder;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Car;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.cars.Manual;
import refactoring_guru.builder.example.director.Director;

/**
 * Demo class. Everything comes together here.
 */
public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Director director = new Director();

        // Director gets the concrete builder object from the client
        // (application code). That's because application knows better which
        // builder to use to get a specific product.
        CarBuilder builder = new CarBuilder();
        director.constructSportsCar(builder);

        // The final product is often retrieved from a builder object, since
        // Director is not aware and not dependent on concrete builders and
        // products.
        Car car = builder.getResult();
        System.out.println("Car built:\n" + car.getCarType());


        CarManualBuilder manualBuilder = new CarManualBuilder();

        // Director may know several building recipes.
        director.constructSportsCar(manualBuilder);
        Manual carManual = manualBuilder.getResult();
        System.out.println("\nCar manual built:\n" + carManual.print());
    }

}

OutputDemo.txt: 実行結果

Car built:
SPORTS_CAR

Car manual built:
Type of car: SPORTS_CAR
Count of seats: 2
Engine: volume - 3.0; mileage - 0.0
Transmission: SEMI_AUTOMATIC
Trip Computer: Functional
GPS Navigator: Functional

他言語での Builder

Builder を C# で Builder を C++ で Builder を Go で Builder を PHP で Builder を Python で Builder を Ruby で Builder を Rust で Builder を Swift で Builder を TypeScript で