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Factory Method

Factory Method en Ruby

Factory method es un patrón de diseño creacional que resuelve el problema de crear objetos de producto sin especificar sus clases concretas.

El patrón Factory Method define un método que debe utilizarse para crear objetos, en lugar de una llamada directa al constructor (operador new). Las subclases pueden sobrescribir este método para cambiar las clases de los objetos que se crearán.

Si no sabes la diferencia entre varios patrones y conceptos de la fábrica, lee nuestra Comparación de fábricas.

Uso del patrón en Ruby

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: El patrón Factory Method se utiliza mucho en el código Ruby. Resulta muy útil cuando necesitas proporcionar un alto nivel de flexibilidad a tu código.

Identificación: Los métodos fábrica pueden ser reconocidos por métodos de creación, que crean objetos de clases concretas, pero los devuelven como objetos del tipo abstracto o interfaz.

Ejemplo conceptual

Este ejemplo ilustra la estructura del patrón de diseño Factory Method. Se centra en responder las siguientes preguntas:

  • ¿De qué clases se compone?
  • ¿Qué papeles juegan esas clases?
  • ¿De qué forma se relacionan los elementos del patrón?

main.rb: Ejemplo conceptual

# The Creator class declares the factory method that is supposed to return an
# object of a Product class. The Creator's subclasses usually provide the
# implementation of this method.
class Creator
  # Note that the Creator may also provide some default implementation of the
  # factory method.
  def factory_method
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end

  # Also note that, despite its name, the Creator's primary responsibility is
  # not creating products. Usually, it contains some core business logic that
  # relies on Product objects, returned by the factory method. Subclasses can
  # indirectly change that business logic by overriding the factory method and
  # returning a different type of product from it.
  def some_operation
    # Call the factory method to create a Product object.
    product = factory_method

    # Now, use the product.
    result = "Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with #{product.operation}"

    result
  end
end

# Concrete Creators override the factory method in order to change the resulting
# product's type.
class ConcreteCreator1 < Creator
  # Note that the signature of the method still uses the abstract product type,
  # even though the concrete product is actually returned from the method. This
  # way the Creator can stay independent of concrete product classes.
  def factory_method
    ConcreteProduct1.new
  end
end

class ConcreteCreator2 < Creator
  # @return [ConcreteProduct2]
  def factory_method
    ConcreteProduct2.new
  end
end

# The Product interface declares the operations that all concrete products must
# implement.
class Product
  # return [String]
  def operation
    raise NotImplementedError, "#{self.class} has not implemented method '#{__method__}'"
  end
end

# Concrete Products provide various implementations of the Product interface.
class ConcreteProduct1 < Product
  # @return [String]
  def operation
    '{Result of the ConcreteProduct1}'
  end
end

class ConcreteProduct2 < Product
  # @return [String]
  def operation
    '{Result of the ConcreteProduct2}'
  end
end

# The client code works with an instance of a concrete creator, albeit through
# its base interface. As long as the client keeps working with the creator via
# the base interface, you can pass it any creator's subclass.
def client_code(creator)
  print "Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.\n"\
        "#{creator.some_operation}"
end

puts 'App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.'
client_code(ConcreteCreator1.new)
puts "\n\n"

puts 'App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.'
client_code(ConcreteCreator2.new)

output.txt: Resultado de la ejecución

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of the ConcreteProduct1}

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of the ConcreteProduct2}

Factory Method en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en Java Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en C# Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en C++ Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en PHP Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en Python Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en Swift Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en TypeScript Patrones de diseño: Factory Method en Go