¡Hurra! ¡La versión en español se lanzó por fin! Por favor, envíanos un mensaje si quieres compartir tu opinión o reportar un error.
Iterator

Iterator en Java

Iterator es un patrón de diseño de comportamiento que permite el recorrido secuencial por una estructura de datos compleja sin exponer sus detalles internos.

Gracias al patrón Iterator, los clientes pueden recorrer elementos de colecciones diferentes de un modo similar, utilizando una única interfaz iteradora.

Uso del patrón en Java

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: El patrón es muy común en el código Java. Muchos frameworks y bibliotecas lo utilizan para proporcionar una forma estandarizada de recorrer sus colecciones.

Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos de bibliotecas centrales de Java:

Identificación: El patrón Iterator es fácil de reconocer por sus métodos de navegación (como next, previous y otros). El código cliente que utiliza iteradores puede no tener acceso directo a la colección recorrida.

Iteración en perfiles de redes sociales

En este ejemplo, el patrón Iterator se utiliza para recorrer perfiles sociales de una colección remota de una red social, sin exponer los detalles de la comunicación al código cliente.

iterators

iterators/ProfileIterator.java: Define la interfaz del perfil

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;

public interface ProfileIterator {
    boolean hasNext();

    Profile getNext();

    void reset();
}

iterators/FacebookIterator.java: Implementa la iteración por perfiles de Facebook

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.Facebook;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class FacebookIterator implements ProfileIterator {
    private Facebook facebook;
    private String type;
    private String email;
    private int currentPosition = 0;
    private List<String> emails = new ArrayList<>();
    private List<Profile> profiles = new ArrayList<>();

    public FacebookIterator(Facebook facebook, String type, String email) {
        this.facebook = facebook;
        this.type = type;
        this.email = email;
    }

    private void lazyLoad() {
        if (emails.size() == 0) {
            List<String> profiles = facebook.requestProfileFriendsFromFacebook(this.email, this.type);
            for (String profile : profiles) {
                this.emails.add(profile);
                this.profiles.add(null);
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean hasNext() {
        lazyLoad();
        return currentPosition < emails.size();
    }

    @Override
    public Profile getNext() {
        if (!hasNext()) {
            return null;
        }

        String friendEmail = emails.get(currentPosition);
        Profile friendProfile = profiles.get(currentPosition);
        if (friendProfile == null) {
            friendProfile = facebook.requestProfileFromFacebook(friendEmail);
            profiles.set(currentPosition, friendProfile);
        }
        currentPosition++;
        return friendProfile;
    }

    @Override
    public void reset() {
        currentPosition = 0;
    }
}

iterators/LinkedInIterator.java: Implementa la iteración por perfiles de LinkedIn

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.LinkedIn;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class LinkedInIterator implements ProfileIterator {
    private LinkedIn linkedIn;
    private String type;
    private String email;
    private int currentPosition = 0;
    private List<String> emails = new ArrayList<>();
    private List<Profile> contacts = new ArrayList<>();

    public LinkedInIterator(LinkedIn linkedIn, String type, String email) {
        this.linkedIn = linkedIn;
        this.type = type;
        this.email = email;
    }

    private void lazyLoad() {
        if (emails.size() == 0) {
            List<String> profiles = linkedIn.requestRelatedContactsFromLinkedInAPI(this.email, this.type);
            for (String profile : profiles) {
                this.emails.add(profile);
                this.contacts.add(null);
            }
        }
    }

    @Override
    public boolean hasNext() {
        lazyLoad();
        return currentPosition < emails.size();
    }

    @Override
    public Profile getNext() {
        if (!hasNext()) {
            return null;
        }

        String friendEmail = emails.get(currentPosition);
        Profile friendContact = contacts.get(currentPosition);
        if (friendContact == null) {
            friendContact = linkedIn.requestContactInfoFromLinkedInAPI(friendEmail);
            contacts.set(currentPosition, friendContact);
        }
        currentPosition++;
        return friendContact;
    }

    @Override
    public void reset() {
        currentPosition = 0;
    }
}

social_networks

social_networks/SocialNetwork.java: Define una interfaz común de red social

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;

public interface SocialNetwork {
    ProfileIterator createFriendsIterator(String profileEmail);

    ProfileIterator createCoworkersIterator(String profileEmail);
}

social_networks/Facebook.java: Facebook

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.FacebookIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class Facebook implements SocialNetwork {
    private List<Profile> profiles;

    public Facebook(List<Profile> cache) {
        if (cache != null) {
            this.profiles = cache;
        } else {
            this.profiles = new ArrayList<>();
        }
    }

    public Profile requestProfileFromFacebook(String profileEmail) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the Facebook API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life...
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("Facebook: Loading profile '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        return findProfile(profileEmail);
    }

    public List<String> requestProfileFriendsFromFacebook(String profileEmail, String contactType) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the Facebook API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life...
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("Facebook: Loading '" + contactType + "' list of '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        Profile profile = findProfile(profileEmail);
        if (profile != null) {
            return profile.getContacts(contactType);
        }
        return null;
    }

    private Profile findProfile(String profileEmail) {
        for (Profile profile : profiles) {
            if (profile.getEmail().equals(profileEmail)) {
                return profile;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    private void simulateNetworkLatency() {
        try {
            Thread.sleep(2500);
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createFriendsIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new FacebookIterator(this, "friends", profileEmail);
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createCoworkersIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new FacebookIterator(this, "coworkers", profileEmail);
    }

}

social_networks/LinkedIn.java: LinkedIn

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.LinkedInIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class LinkedIn implements SocialNetwork {
    private List<Profile> contacts;

    public LinkedIn(List<Profile> cache) {
        if (cache != null) {
            this.contacts = cache;
        } else {
            this.contacts = new ArrayList<>();
        }
    }

    public Profile requestContactInfoFromLinkedInAPI(String profileEmail) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the LinkedIn API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life...
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("LinkedIn: Loading profile '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        return findContact(profileEmail);
    }

    public List<String> requestRelatedContactsFromLinkedInAPI(String profileEmail, String contactType) {
        // Here would be a POST request to one of the LinkedIn API endpoints.
        // Instead, we emulates long network connection, which you would expect
        // in the real life.
        simulateNetworkLatency();
        System.out.println("LinkedIn: Loading '" + contactType + "' list of '" + profileEmail + "' over the network...");

        // ...and return test data.
        Profile profile = findContact(profileEmail);
        if (profile != null) {
            return profile.getContacts(contactType);
        }
        return null;
    }

    private Profile findContact(String profileEmail) {
        for (Profile profile : contacts) {
            if (profile.getEmail().equals(profileEmail)) {
                return profile;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    private void simulateNetworkLatency() {
        try {
            Thread.sleep(2500);
        } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createFriendsIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new LinkedInIterator(this, "friends", profileEmail);
    }

    @Override
    public ProfileIterator createCoworkersIterator(String profileEmail) {
        return new LinkedInIterator(this, "coworkers", profileEmail);
    }
}

profile

profile/Profile.java: Perfiles sociales

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Map;

public class Profile {
    private String name;
    private String email;
    private Map<String, List<String>> contacts = new HashMap<>();

    public Profile(String email, String name, String... contacts) {
        this.email = email;
        this.name = name;

        // Parse contact list from a set of "friend:email@gmail.com" pairs.
        for (String contact : contacts) {
            String[] parts = contact.split(":");
            String contactType = "friend", contactEmail;
            if (parts.length == 1) {
                contactEmail = parts[0];
            }
            else {
                contactType = parts[0];
                contactEmail = parts[1];
            }
            if (!this.contacts.containsKey(contactType)) {
                this.contacts.put(contactType, new ArrayList<>());
            }
            this.contacts.get(contactType).add(contactEmail);
        }
    }

    public String getEmail() {
        return email;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public List<String> getContacts(String contactType) {
        if (!this.contacts.containsKey(contactType)) {
            this.contacts.put(contactType, new ArrayList<>());
        }
        return contacts.get(contactType);
    }
}

spammer

spammer/SocialSpammer.java: Aplicación de envío de mensajes

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example.spammer;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.iterators.ProfileIterator;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.SocialNetwork;

public class SocialSpammer {
    public SocialNetwork network;
    public ProfileIterator iterator;

    public SocialSpammer(SocialNetwork network) {
        this.network = network;
    }

    public void sendSpamToFriends(String profileEmail, String message) {
        System.out.println("\nIterating over friends...\n");
        iterator = network.createFriendsIterator(profileEmail);
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            Profile profile = iterator.getNext();
            sendMessage(profile.getEmail(), message);
        }
    }

    public void sendSpamToCoworkers(String profileEmail, String message) {
        System.out.println("\nIterating over coworkers...\n");
        iterator = network.createCoworkersIterator(profileEmail);
        while (iterator.hasNext()) {
            Profile profile = iterator.getNext();
            sendMessage(profile.getEmail(), message);
        }
    }

    public void sendMessage(String email, String message) {
        System.out.println("Sent message to: '" + email + "'. Message body: '" + message + "'");
    }
}

Demo.java: Código cliente

package refactoring_guru.iterator.example;

import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.profile.Profile;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.Facebook;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.LinkedIn;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.social_networks.SocialNetwork;
import refactoring_guru.iterator.example.spammer.SocialSpammer;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Scanner;

/**
 * Demo class. Everything comes together here.
 */
public class Demo {
    public static Scanner scanner = new Scanner(System.in);

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Please specify social network to target spam tool (default:Facebook):");
        System.out.println("1. Facebook");
        System.out.println("2. LinkedIn");
        String choice = scanner.nextLine();

        SocialNetwork network;
        if (choice.equals("2")) {
            network = new LinkedIn(createTestProfiles());
        }
        else {
            network = new Facebook(createTestProfiles());
        }

        SocialSpammer spammer = new SocialSpammer(network);
        spammer.sendSpamToFriends("anna.smith@bing.com",
                "Hey! This is Anna's friend Josh. Can you do me a favor and like this post [link]?");
        spammer.sendSpamToCoworkers("anna.smith@bing.com",
                "Hey! This is Anna's boss Jason. Anna told me you would be interested in [link].");
    }

    public static List<Profile> createTestProfiles() {
        List<Profile> data = new ArrayList<Profile>();
        data.add(new Profile("anna.smith@bing.com", "Anna Smith", "friends:mad_max@ya.com", "friends:catwoman@yahoo.com", "coworkers:sam@amazon.com"));
        data.add(new Profile("mad_max@ya.com", "Maximilian", "friends:anna.smith@bing.com", "coworkers:sam@amazon.com"));
        data.add(new Profile("bill@microsoft.eu", "Billie", "coworkers:avanger@ukr.net"));
        data.add(new Profile("avanger@ukr.net", "John Day", "coworkers:bill@microsoft.eu"));
        data.add(new Profile("sam@amazon.com", "Sam Kitting", "coworkers:anna.smith@bing.com", "coworkers:mad_max@ya.com", "friends:catwoman@yahoo.com"));
        data.add(new Profile("catwoman@yahoo.com", "Liza", "friends:anna.smith@bing.com", "friends:sam@amazon.com"));
        return data;
    }
}

OutputDemo.txt: Resultado de la ejecución

Please specify social network to target spam tool (default:Facebook):
1. Facebook
2. LinkedIn
> 1

Iterating over friends...

Facebook: Loading 'friends' list of 'anna.smith@bing.com' over the network...
Facebook: Loading profile 'mad_max@ya.com' over the network...
Sent message to: 'mad_max@ya.com'. Message body: 'Hey! This is Anna's friend Josh. Can you do me a favor and like this post [link]?'
Facebook: Loading profile 'catwoman@yahoo.com' over the network...
Sent message to: 'catwoman@yahoo.com'. Message body: 'Hey! This is Anna's friend Josh. Can you do me a favor and like this post [link]?'

Iterating over coworkers...

Facebook: Loading 'coworkers' list of 'anna.smith@bing.com' over the network...
Facebook: Loading profile 'sam@amazon.com' over the network...
Sent message to: 'sam@amazon.com'. Message body: 'Hey! This is Anna's boss Jason. Anna told me you would be interested in [link].'

Iterator en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Iterator en C# Patrones de diseño: Iterator en C++ Patrones de diseño: Iterator en PHP Patrones de diseño: Iterator en Python Patrones de diseño: Iterator en Ruby Patrones de diseño: Iterator en Swift Patrones de diseño: Iterator en TypeScript Patrones de diseño: Iterator en Go