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Composite

Composite en Python

Le Composite est un patron de conception structurel qui permet d’agencer les objets dans une structure ressemblant à une arborescence, afin de pouvoir la traiter comme un objet individuel.

Le composite est devenu la solution la plus populaire pour régler les problèmes d’une structure arborescente. Il offre une fonctionnalité très pratique qui permet de parcourir récursivement toute l’arborescence et d’additionner les résultats.

Utilisation du patron de conception en Python

Complexité :

Popularité :

Exemples d’utilisation : Le composite est très répandu en Python. Il est souvent utilisé pour modéliser les hiérarchies des composants d’une interface utilisateur ou pour du code qui manipule des graphes.

Identification : Si vous avez une arborescence composée uniquement d’objets issus de la même hiérarchie de classes, c’est probablement un composite. Si les méthodes de ces classes délèguent les tâches aux objets enfants de l’arborescence et passent par une classe de base ou interface de la hiérarchie pour ce faire, il est très probable que ce soit réellement un composite.

Exemple conceptuel

Dans cet exemple, nous allons voir la structure du patron de conception Composite. Nous allons répondre aux questions suivantes :

  • Que contiennent les classes ?
  • Quel rôle jouent-elles ?
  • Comment les éléments du patron sont-ils reliés ?

main.py: Exemple conceptuel

from __future__ import annotations
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod
from typing import List


class Component(ABC):
    """
    The base Component class declares common operations for both simple and
    complex objects of a composition.
    """

    @property
    def parent(self) -> Component:
        return self._parent

    @parent.setter
    def parent(self, parent: Component):
        """
        Optionally, the base Component can declare an interface for setting and
        accessing a parent of the component in a tree structure. It can also
        provide some default implementation for these methods.
        """

        self._parent = parent

    """
    In some cases, it would be beneficial to define the child-management
    operations right in the base Component class. This way, you won't need to
    expose any concrete component classes to the client code, even during the
    object tree assembly. The downside is that these methods will be empty for
    the leaf-level components.
    """

    def add(self, component: Component) -> None:
        pass

    def remove(self, component: Component) -> None:
        pass

    def is_composite(self) -> bool:
        """
        You can provide a method that lets the client code figure out whether a
        component can bear children.
        """

        return False

    @abstractmethod
    def operation(self) -> str:
        """
        The base Component may implement some default behavior or leave it to
        concrete classes (by declaring the method containing the behavior as
        "abstract").
        """

        pass


class Leaf(Component):
    """
    The Leaf class represents the end objects of a composition. A leaf can't
    have any children.

    Usually, it's the Leaf objects that do the actual work, whereas Composite
    objects only delegate to their sub-components.
    """

    def operation(self) -> str:
        return "Leaf"


class Composite(Component):
    """
    The Composite class represents the complex components that may have
    children. Usually, the Composite objects delegate the actual work to their
    children and then "sum-up" the result.
    """

    def __init__(self) -> None:
        self._children: List[Component] = []

    """
    A composite object can add or remove other components (both simple or
    complex) to or from its child list.
    """

    def add(self, component: Component) -> None:
        self._children.append(component)
        component.parent = self

    def remove(self, component: Component) -> None:
        self._children.remove(component)
        component.parent = None

    def is_composite(self) -> bool:
        return True

    def operation(self) -> str:
        """
        The Composite executes its primary logic in a particular way. It
        traverses recursively through all its children, collecting and summing
        their results. Since the composite's children pass these calls to their
        children and so forth, the whole object tree is traversed as a result.
        """

        results = []
        for child in self._children:
            results.append(child.operation())
        return f"Branch({'+'.join(results)})"


def client_code(component: Component) -> None:
    """
    The client code works with all of the components via the base interface.
    """

    print(f"RESULT: {component.operation()}", end="")


def client_code2(component1: Component, component2: Component) -> None:
    """
    Thanks to the fact that the child-management operations are declared in the
    base Component class, the client code can work with any component, simple or
    complex, without depending on their concrete classes.
    """

    if component1.is_composite():
        component1.add(component2)

    print(f"RESULT: {component1.operation()}", end="")


if __name__ == "__main__":
    # This way the client code can support the simple leaf components...
    simple = Leaf()
    print("Client: I've got a simple component:")
    client_code(simple)
    print("\n")

    # ...as well as the complex composites.
    tree = Composite()

    branch1 = Composite()
    branch1.add(Leaf())
    branch1.add(Leaf())

    branch2 = Composite()
    branch2.add(Leaf())

    tree.add(branch1)
    tree.add(branch2)

    print("Client: Now I've got a composite tree:")
    client_code(tree)
    print("\n")

    print("Client: I don't need to check the components classes even when managing the tree:")
    client_code2(tree, simple)

Output.txt: Résultat de l’exécution

Client: I've got a simple component:
RESULT: Leaf

Client: Now I've got a composite tree:
RESULT: Branch(Branch(Leaf+Leaf)+Branch(Leaf))

Client: I don't need to check the components classes even when managing the tree:
RESULT: Branch(Branch(Leaf+Leaf)+Branch(Leaf)+Leaf)

Composite dans les autres langues

Patrons de conception : Composite en Java Patrons de conception : Composite en C# Patrons de conception : Composite en C++ Patrons de conception : Composite en PHP Patrons de conception : Composite en Ruby Patrons de conception : Composite en Swift Patrons de conception : Composite en TypeScript Patrons de conception : Composite en Go