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Composite

Composite en TypeScript

Le Composite est un patron de conception structurel qui permet d’agencer les objets dans une structure ressemblant à une arborescence, afin de pouvoir la traiter comme un objet individuel.

Le composite est devenu la solution la plus populaire pour régler les problèmes d’une structure arborescente. Il offre une fonctionnalité très pratique qui permet de parcourir récursivement toute l’arborescence et d’additionner les résultats.

Utilisation du patron de conception en TypeScript

Complexité :

Popularité :

Exemples d’utilisation : Le composite est très répandu en TypeScript. Il est souvent utilisé pour modéliser les hiérarchies des composants d’une interface utilisateur ou pour du code qui manipule des graphes.

Identification : Si vous avez une arborescence composée uniquement d’objets issus de la même hiérarchie de classes, c’est probablement un composite. Si les méthodes de ces classes délèguent les tâches aux objets enfants de l’arborescence et passent par une classe de base ou interface de la hiérarchie pour ce faire, il est très probable que ce soit réellement un composite.

Exemple conceptuel

Dans cet exemple, nous allons voir la structure du Composite et répondre aux questions suivantes :

  • Que contiennent les classes ?
  • Quels rôles jouent-elles ?
  • Comment les éléments du patron sont-ils reliés ?

index.ts: Exemple conceptuel

/**
 * The base Component class declares common operations for both simple and
 * complex objects of a composition.
 */
abstract class Component {
    protected parent: Component;

    /**
     * Optionally, the base Component can declare an interface for setting and
     * accessing a parent of the component in a tree structure. It can also
     * provide some default implementation for these methods.
     */
    public setParent(parent: Component) {
        this.parent = parent;
    }

    public getParent(): Component {
        return this.parent;
    }

    /**
     * In some cases, it would be beneficial to define the child-management
     * operations right in the base Component class. This way, you won't need to
     * expose any concrete component classes to the client code, even during the
     * object tree assembly. The downside is that these methods will be empty
     * for the leaf-level components.
     */
    public add(component: Component): void { }

    public remove(component: Component): void { }

    /**
     * You can provide a method that lets the client code figure out whether a
     * component can bear children.
     */
    public isComposite(): boolean {
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * The base Component may implement some default behavior or leave it to
     * concrete classes (by declaring the method containing the behavior as
     * "abstract").
     */
    public abstract operation(): string;
}

/**
 * The Leaf class represents the end objects of a composition. A leaf can't have
 * any children.
 *
 * Usually, it's the Leaf objects that do the actual work, whereas Composite
 * objects only delegate to their sub-components.
 */
class Leaf extends Component {
    public operation(): string {
        return 'Leaf';
    }
}

/**
 * The Composite class represents the complex components that may have children.
 * Usually, the Composite objects delegate the actual work to their children and
 * then "sum-up" the result.
 */
class Composite extends Component {
    protected children: Component[] = [];

    /**
     * A composite object can add or remove other components (both simple or
     * complex) to or from its child list.
     */
    public add(component: Component): void {
        this.children.push(component);
        component.setParent(this);
    }

    public remove(component: Component): void {
        const componentIndex = this.children.indexOf(component);
        this.children.splice(componentIndex, 1);

        component.setParent(null);
    }

    public isComposite(): boolean {
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * The Composite executes its primary logic in a particular way. It
     * traverses recursively through all its children, collecting and summing
     * their results. Since the composite's children pass these calls to their
     * children and so forth, the whole object tree is traversed as a result.
     */
    public operation(): string {
        const results = [];
        for (const child of this.children) {
            results.push(child.operation());
        }

        return `Branch(${results.join('+')})`;
    }
}

/**
 * The client code works with all of the components via the base interface.
 */
function clientCode(component: Component) {
    // ...

    console.log(`RESULT: ${component.operation()}`);

    // ...
}

/**
 * This way the client code can support the simple leaf components...
 */
const simple = new Leaf();
console.log('Client: I\'ve got a simple component:');
clientCode(simple);
console.log('');

/**
 * ...as well as the complex composites.
 */
const tree = new Composite();
const branch1 = new Composite();
branch1.add(new Leaf());
branch1.add(new Leaf());
const branch2 = new Composite();
branch2.add(new Leaf());
tree.add(branch1);
tree.add(branch2);
console.log('Client: Now I\'ve got a composite tree:');
clientCode(tree);
console.log('');

/**
 * Thanks to the fact that the child-management operations are declared in the
 * base Component class, the client code can work with any component, simple or
 * complex, without depending on their concrete classes.
 */
function clientCode2(component1: Component, component2: Component) {
    // ...

    if (component1.isComposite()) {
        component1.add(component2);
    }
    console.log(`RESULT: ${component1.operation()}`);

    // ...
}

console.log('Client: I don\'t need to check the components classes even when managing the tree:');
clientCode2(tree, simple);

Output.txt: Résultat de l’exécution

Client: I've got a simple component:
RESULT: Leaf

Client: Now I've got a composite tree:
RESULT: Branch(Branch(Leaf+Leaf)+Branch(Leaf))

Client: I don't need to check the components classes even when managing the tree:
RESULT: Branch(Branch(Leaf+Leaf)+Branch(Leaf)+Leaf)

Composite dans les autres langues

Patrons de conception : Composite en Java Patrons de conception : Composite en C# Patrons de conception : Composite en C++ Patrons de conception : Composite en PHP Patrons de conception : Composite en Python Patrons de conception : Composite en Ruby Patrons de conception : Composite en Swift Patrons de conception : Composite en Go