Ei, acabamos de reduzir o preço de todos os produtos. Vamos capacitar nossas habilidades de programação para a era pós-COVID. Veja as ofertas »
Factory Method

Factory Method em C++

O Factory method é um padrão de projeto criacional, que resolve o problema de criar objetos de produtos sem especificar suas classes concretas.

O Factory Method define um método, que deve ser usado para criar objetos em vez da chamada direta ao construtor (operador new). As subclasses podem substituir esse método para alterar a classe de objetos que serão criados.

Se você não conseguir descobrir a diferença entre os padrões Factory, Factory Method e Abstract Factory, leia nossa Comparação Factory.

Complexidade:

Popularidade:

Exemplos de uso: O padrão Factory Method é amplamente utilizado no código C++. É muito útil quando você precisa fornecer um alto nível de flexibilidade para seu código.

Identificação: Os métodos fábrica podem ser reconhecidos por métodos de criação, que criam objetos de classes concretas, mas os retornam como objetos de tipo ou interface abstrata.

Exemplo conceitual

Este exemplo ilustra a estrutura do padrão de projeto Factory Method. Ele se concentra em responder a estas perguntas:

  • De quais classes ele consiste?
  • Quais papéis essas classes desempenham?
  • De que maneira os elementos do padrão estão relacionados?

main.cc: Exemplo conceitual

/**
 * The Product interface declares the operations that all concrete products must
 * implement.
 */

class Product {
 public:
  virtual ~Product() {}
  virtual std::string Operation() const = 0;
};

/**
 * Concrete Products provide various implementations of the Product interface.
 */
class ConcreteProduct1 : public Product {
 public:
  std::string Operation() const override {
    return "{Result of the ConcreteProduct1}";
  }
};
class ConcreteProduct2 : public Product {
 public:
  std::string Operation() const override {
    return "{Result of the ConcreteProduct2}";
  }
};

/**
 * The Creator class declares the factory method that is supposed to return an
 * object of a Product class. The Creator's subclasses usually provide the
 * implementation of this method.
 */

class Creator {
  /**
   * Note that the Creator may also provide some default implementation of the
   * factory method.
   */
 public:
  virtual ~Creator(){};
  virtual Product* FactoryMethod() const = 0;
  /**
   * Also note that, despite its name, the Creator's primary responsibility is
   * not creating products. Usually, it contains some core business logic that
   * relies on Product objects, returned by the factory method. Subclasses can
   * indirectly change that business logic by overriding the factory method and
   * returning a different type of product from it.
   */

  std::string SomeOperation() const {
    // Call the factory method to create a Product object.
    Product* product = this->FactoryMethod();
    // Now, use the product.
    std::string result = "Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with " + product->Operation();
    delete product;
    return result;
  }
};

/**
 * Concrete Creators override the factory method in order to change the
 * resulting product's type.
 */
class ConcreteCreator1 : public Creator {
  /**
   * Note that the signature of the method still uses the abstract product type,
   * even though the concrete product is actually returned from the method. This
   * way the Creator can stay independent of concrete product classes.
   */
 public:
  Product* FactoryMethod() const override {
    return new ConcreteProduct1();
  }
};

class ConcreteCreator2 : public Creator {
 public:
  Product* FactoryMethod() const override {
    return new ConcreteProduct2();
  }
};

/**
 * The client code works with an instance of a concrete creator, albeit through
 * its base interface. As long as the client keeps working with the creator via
 * the base interface, you can pass it any creator's subclass.
 */
void ClientCode(const Creator& creator) {
  // ...
  std::cout << "Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.\n"
            << creator.SomeOperation() << std::endl;
  // ...
}

/**
 * The Application picks a creator's type depending on the configuration or
 * environment.
 */

int main() {
  std::cout << "App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.\n";
  Creator* creator = new ConcreteCreator1();
  ClientCode(*creator);
  std::cout << std::endl;
  std::cout << "App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.\n";
  Creator* creator2 = new ConcreteCreator2();
  ClientCode(*creator2);

  delete creator;
  delete creator2;
  return 0;
}

Output.txt: Resultados da execução

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of the ConcreteProduct1}

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of the ConcreteProduct2}

Factory Method em outras linguagens

Factory Method em C# Factory Method em Go Factory Method em Java Factory Method em PHP Factory Method em Python Factory Method em Ruby Factory Method em Rust Factory Method em Swift Factory Method em TypeScript