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Strategy

Strategy en Java

Strategy es un patrón de diseño de comportamiento que convierte un grupo de comportamientos en objetos y los hace intercambiables dentro del objeto de contexto original.

El objeto original, llamado contexto, contiene una referencia a un objeto de estrategia y le delega la ejecución del comportamiento. Para cambiar la forma en que el contexto realiza su trabajo, otros objetos pueden sustituir el objeto de estrategia actualmente vinculado, por otro.

Uso del patrón en Java

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: El patrón Strategy es muy común en el código Java. Se utiliza a menudo en varios frameworks para proporcionar a los usuarios una forma de cambiar el comportamiento de una clase sin extenderla.

Java 8 brindó el soporte de funciones lambda, que pueden servir como alternativas más sencillas al patrón Strategy.

Aquí tienes algunos ejemplos del patrón Strategy en las principales bibliotecas Java:

Identificación: El patrón Strategy se puede reconocer por un método que permite a los objetos anidados hacer el verdadero trabajo, así como el método setter (modificador) que permite sustituir ese objeto por otro diferente.

Medio de pago en una aplicación de comercio electrónico

En este ejemplo, el patrón Strategy se utiliza para implementar los distintos medios de pago de una aplicación de comercio electrónico. Una vez seleccionado el producto a comprar, un cliente elige un medio de pago: Paypal o tarjeta de crédito.

Las estrategias concretas no solo realizan el propio pago, sino que además alteran el comportamiento del formulario de pago, proporcionando campos adecuados para el registro de los datos del pago.

strategies

strategies/PayStrategy.java: Interfaz común de los medios de pago

package refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies;

/**
 * Common interface for all strategies.
 */
public interface PayStrategy {
    boolean pay(int paymentAmount);
    void collectPaymentDetails();
}

strategies/PayByPayPal.java: Pago con PayPal

package refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * Concrete strategy. Implements PayPal payment method.
 */
public class PayByPayPal implements PayStrategy {
    private static final Map<String, String> DATA_BASE = new HashMap<>();
    private final BufferedReader READER = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
    private String email;
    private String password;
    private boolean signedIn;

    static {
        DATA_BASE.put("amanda1985", "amanda@ya.com");
        DATA_BASE.put("qwerty", "john@amazon.eu");
    }

    /**
     * Collect customer's data.
     */
    @Override
    public void collectPaymentDetails() {
        try {
            while (!signedIn) {
                System.out.print("Enter the user's email: ");
                email = READER.readLine();
                System.out.print("Enter the password: ");
                password = READER.readLine();
                if (verify()) {
                    System.out.println("Data verification has been successful.");
                } else {
                    System.out.println("Wrong email or password!");
                }
            }
        } catch (IOException ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    private boolean verify() {
        setSignedIn(email.equals(DATA_BASE.get(password)));
        return signedIn;
    }

    /**
     * Save customer data for future shopping attempts.
     */
    @Override
    public boolean pay(int paymentAmount) {
        if (signedIn) {
            System.out.println("Paying " + paymentAmount + " using PayPal.");
            return true;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }

    private void setSignedIn(boolean signedIn) {
        this.signedIn = signedIn;
    }
}

strategies/PayByCreditCard.java: Pago con tarjeta de crédito

package refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;

/**
 * Concrete strategy. Implements credit card payment method.
 */
public class PayByCreditCard implements PayStrategy {
    private final BufferedReader READER = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
    private CreditCard card;

    /**
     * Collect credit card data.
     */
    @Override
    public void collectPaymentDetails() {
        try {
            System.out.print("Enter the card number: ");
            String number = READER.readLine();
            System.out.print("Enter the card expiration date 'mm/yy': ");
            String date = READER.readLine();
            System.out.print("Enter the CVV code: ");
            String cvv = READER.readLine();
            card = new CreditCard(number, date, cvv);

            // Validate credit card number...

        } catch (IOException ex) {
            ex.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    /**
     * After card validation we can charge customer's credit card.
     */
    @Override
    public boolean pay(int paymentAmount) {
        if (cardIsPresent()) {
            System.out.println("Paying " + paymentAmount + " using Credit Card.");
            card.setAmount(card.getAmount() - paymentAmount);
            return true;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }

    private boolean cardIsPresent() {
        return card != null;
    }
}

strategies/CreditCard.java: Una clase de tarjeta de crédito

package refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies;

/**
 * Dummy credit card class.
 */
public class CreditCard {
    private int amount;
    private String number;
    private String date;
    private String cvv;

    CreditCard(String number, String date, String cvv) {
        this.amount = 100_000;
        this.number = number;
        this.date = date;
        this.cvv = cvv;
    }

    public void setAmount(int amount) {
        this.amount = amount;
    }

    public int getAmount() {
        return amount;
    }
}

order/Order.java: Clase de pedido

package refactoring_guru.strategy.example.order;

import refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies.PayStrategy;

/**
 * Order class. Doesn't know the concrete payment method (strategy) user has
 * picked. It uses common strategy interface to delegate collecting payment data
 * to strategy object. It can be used to save order to database.
 */
public class Order {
    private int totalCost = 0;
    private boolean isClosed = false;

    public void processOrder(PayStrategy strategy) {
        strategy.collectPaymentDetails();
        // Here we could collect and store payment data from the strategy.
    }

    public void setTotalCost(int cost) {
        this.totalCost += cost;
    }

    public int getTotalCost() {
        return totalCost;
    }

    public boolean isClosed() {
        return isClosed;
    }

    public void setClosed() {
        isClosed = true;
    }
}

Demo.java: Código cliente

package refactoring_guru.strategy.example;

import refactoring_guru.strategy.example.order.Order;
import refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies.PayByCreditCard;
import refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies.PayByPayPal;
import refactoring_guru.strategy.example.strategies.PayStrategy;

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

/**
 * World first console e-commerce application.
 */
public class Demo {
	private static Map<Integer, Integer> priceOnProducts = new HashMap<>();
	private static BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(System.in));
	private static Order order = new Order();
	private static PayStrategy strategy;

	static {
		priceOnProducts.put(1, 2200);
		priceOnProducts.put(2, 1850);
		priceOnProducts.put(3, 1100);
		priceOnProducts.put(4, 890);
	}

	public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException {
		while (!order.isClosed()) {
			int cost;

			String continueChoice;
			do {
				System.out.print("Please, select a product:" + "\n" +
						"1 - Mother board" + "\n" +
						"2 - CPU" + "\n" +
						"3 - HDD" + "\n" +
						"4 - Memory" + "\n");
				int choice = Integer.parseInt(reader.readLine());
				cost = priceOnProducts.get(choice);
				System.out.print("Count: ");
				int count = Integer.parseInt(reader.readLine());
				order.setTotalCost(cost * count);
				System.out.print("Do you wish to continue selecting products? Y/N: ");
				continueChoice = reader.readLine();
			} while (continueChoice.equalsIgnoreCase("Y"));

			if (strategy == null) {
				System.out.println("Please, select a payment method:" + "\n" +
						"1 - PalPay" + "\n" +
						"2 - Credit Card");
				String paymentMethod = reader.readLine();

				// Client creates different strategies based on input from
				// user, application configuration, etc.
												// пользовательских данных, конфигурации и прочих параметров.
				if (paymentMethod.equals("1")) {
					strategy = new PayByPayPal();
				} else {
					strategy = new PayByCreditCard();
				}
			}

			// Order object delegates gathering payment data to strategy
			// object, since only strategies know what data they need to
			// process a payment.
									// т.к. только стратегии знают какие данные им нужны для приёма
			// оплаты.
			order.processOrder(strategy);

			System.out.print("Pay " + order.getTotalCost() + " units or Continue shopping? P/C: ");
			String proceed = reader.readLine();
			if (proceed.equalsIgnoreCase("P")) {
				// Finally, strategy handles the payment.
												if (strategy.pay(order.getTotalCost())) {
					System.out.println("Payment has been successful.");
				} else {
					System.out.println("FAIL! Please, check your data.");
				}
				order.setClosed();
			}
		}
	}
}

OutputDemo.txt: Resultado de la ejecución

Please, select a product:
1 - Mother board
2 - CPU
3 - HDD
4 - Memory
1
Count: 2
Do you wish to continue selecting products? Y/N: y
Please, select a product:
1 - Mother board
2 - CPU
3 - HDD
4 - Memory
2
Count: 1
Do you wish to continue selecting products? Y/N: n
Please, select a payment method:
1 - PalPay
2 - Credit Card
1
Enter the user's email: user@example.com
Enter the password: qwerty
Wrong email or password!
Enter user email: amanda@ya.com
Enter password: amanda1985
Data verification has been successful.
Pay 6250 units or Continue shopping?  P/C: p
Paying 6250 using PayPal.
Payment has been successful.

Strategy en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Strategy en C# Patrones de diseño: Strategy en C++ Patrones de diseño: Strategy en PHP Patrones de diseño: Strategy en Python Patrones de diseño: Strategy en Ruby Patrones de diseño: Strategy en Swift Patrones de diseño: Strategy en TypeScript