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Proxy

Proxy を Java で

Proxy 構造に関するデザインパターンの一つで クライアントが使う本物のサービス・オブジェクトの代理として機能するオブジェクト プロキシー を提供します プロキシーは アクセス制御 キャッシングなど 何らかの作業を行なった後 リクエストをサービス・オブジェクトに渡します

プロキシー・オブジェクトはサービスと同じインターフェースを持ち クライアントにとっては 本物のオブジェクトと交換可能です

複雑度

人気度

使用例 Proxy パターンは ほとんどの Java アプリケーションにおいては あまり見かけませんが いくつかの特殊なケースでは便利です 何らかの既存クラスのオブジェクトに何らかの振る舞いを追加したいがクライアント・コードには手を加えたくない時 かけがえのないものです

標準 Java ライブラリー内のプロキシーの例

見つけ方 プロキシーは 実際の作業はすべて他のオブジェクトに委任します プロキシーがサービスのサブクラスである場合を除き プロキシーのメソッドのそれぞれは 最終的にはサービス・オブジェクトを参照するはずです

キャッシング・プロキシー

この例では 遅延初期化と非効率な外部製作の YouTube 統合ライブラリーのキャッシングの実装に Proxy パターンが利用されています

変更不可能なクラスにいくつかの追加の振る舞いを加える必要がある時 Proxy は非常に貴重です

some_cool_media_library

some_cool_media_library/ThirdPartyYouTubeLib.java: リモート・サービス・インターフェース

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library;

import java.util.HashMap;

public interface ThirdPartyYouTubeLib {
    HashMap<String, Video> popularVideos();

    Video getVideo(String videoId);
}

some_cool_media_library/ThirdPartyYouTubeClass.java: リモート・サービスの実装

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library;

import java.util.HashMap;

public class ThirdPartyYouTubeClass implements ThirdPartyYouTubeLib {

    @Override
    public HashMap<String, Video> popularVideos() {
        connectToServer("http://www.youtube.com");
        return getRandomVideos();
    }

    @Override
    public Video getVideo(String videoId) {
        connectToServer("http://www.youtube.com/" + videoId);
        return getSomeVideo(videoId);
    }

    // -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Fake methods to simulate network activity. They as slow as a real life.

    private int random(int min, int max) {
        return min + (int) (Math.random() * ((max - min) + 1));
    }

    private void experienceNetworkLatency() {
        int randomLatency = random(5, 10);
        for (int i = 0; i < randomLatency; i++) {
            try {
                Thread.sleep(100);
            } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

    private void connectToServer(String server) {
        System.out.print("Connecting to " + server + "... ");
        experienceNetworkLatency();
        System.out.print("Connected!" + "\n");
    }

    private HashMap<String, Video> getRandomVideos() {
        System.out.print("Downloading populars... ");

        experienceNetworkLatency();
        HashMap<String, Video> hmap = new HashMap<String, Video>();
        hmap.put("catzzzzzzzzz", new Video("sadgahasgdas", "Catzzzz.avi"));
        hmap.put("mkafksangasj", new Video("mkafksangasj", "Dog play with ball.mp4"));
        hmap.put("dancesvideoo", new Video("asdfas3ffasd", "Dancing video.mpq"));
        hmap.put("dlsdk5jfslaf", new Video("dlsdk5jfslaf", "Barcelona vs RealM.mov"));
        hmap.put("3sdfgsd1j333", new Video("3sdfgsd1j333", "Programing lesson#1.avi"));

        System.out.print("Done!" + "\n");
        return hmap;
    }

    private Video getSomeVideo(String videoId) {
        System.out.print("Downloading video... ");

        experienceNetworkLatency();
        Video video = new Video(videoId, "Some video title");

        System.out.print("Done!" + "\n");
        return video;
    }

}

some_cool_media_library/Video.java: ビデオ・ファイル

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library;

public class Video {
    public String id;
    public String title;
    public String data;

    Video(String id, String title) {
        this.id = id;
        this.title = title;
        this.data = "Random video.";
    }
}

proxy

proxy/YouTubeCacheProxy.java: キャッシング・プロキシー

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.proxy;

import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeClass;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeLib;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.Video;

import java.util.HashMap;

public class YouTubeCacheProxy implements ThirdPartyYouTubeLib {
    private ThirdPartyYouTubeLib youtubeService;
    private HashMap<String, Video> cachePopular = new HashMap<String, Video>();
    private HashMap<String, Video> cacheAll = new HashMap<String, Video>();

    public YouTubeCacheProxy() {
        this.youtubeService = new ThirdPartyYouTubeClass();
    }

    @Override
    public HashMap<String, Video> popularVideos() {
        if (cachePopular.isEmpty()) {
            cachePopular = youtubeService.popularVideos();
        } else {
            System.out.println("Retrieved list from cache.");
        }
        return cachePopular;
    }

    @Override
    public Video getVideo(String videoId) {
        Video video = cacheAll.get(videoId);
        if (video == null) {
            video = youtubeService.getVideo(videoId);
            cacheAll.put(videoId, video);
        } else {
            System.out.println("Retrieved video '" + videoId + "' from cache.");
        }
        return video;
    }

    public void reset() {
        cachePopular.clear();
        cacheAll.clear();
    }
}

downloader

downloader/YouTubeDownloader.java: メディア・ダウンローダー・アプリ

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.downloader;

import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeLib;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.Video;

import java.util.HashMap;

public class YouTubeDownloader {
    private ThirdPartyYouTubeLib api;

    public YouTubeDownloader(ThirdPartyYouTubeLib api) {
        this.api = api;
    }

    public void renderVideoPage(String videoId) {
        Video video = api.getVideo(videoId);
        System.out.println("\n-------------------------------");
        System.out.println("Video page (imagine fancy HTML)");
        System.out.println("ID: " + video.id);
        System.out.println("Title: " + video.title);
        System.out.println("Video: " + video.data);
        System.out.println("-------------------------------\n");
    }

    public void renderPopularVideos() {
        HashMap<String, Video> list = api.popularVideos();
        System.out.println("\n-------------------------------");
        System.out.println("Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)");
        for (Video video : list.values()) {
            System.out.println("ID: " + video.id + " / Title: " + video.title);
        }
        System.out.println("-------------------------------\n");
    }
}

Demo.java: 初期化コード

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example;

import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.downloader.YouTubeDownloader;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.proxy.YouTubeCacheProxy;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeClass;

public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        YouTubeDownloader naiveDownloader = new YouTubeDownloader(new ThirdPartyYouTubeClass());
        YouTubeDownloader smartDownloader = new YouTubeDownloader(new YouTubeCacheProxy());

        long naive = test(naiveDownloader);
        long smart = test(smartDownloader);
        System.out.print("Time saved by caching proxy: " + (naive - smart) + "ms");

    }

    private static long test(YouTubeDownloader downloader) {
        long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();

        // User behavior in our app:
        downloader.renderPopularVideos();
        downloader.renderVideoPage("catzzzzzzzzz");
        downloader.renderPopularVideos();
        downloader.renderVideoPage("dancesvideoo");
        // Users might visit the same page quite often.
        downloader.renderVideoPage("catzzzzzzzzz");
        downloader.renderVideoPage("someothervid");

        long estimatedTime = System.currentTimeMillis() - startTime;
        System.out.print("Time elapsed: " + estimatedTime + "ms\n");
        return estimatedTime;
    }
}

OutputDemo.txt: 実行結果

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com... Connected!
Downloading populars... Done!

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/catzzzzzzzzz... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com... Connected!
Downloading populars... Done!

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/dancesvideoo... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: dancesvideoo
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/catzzzzzzzzz... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/someothervid... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: someothervid
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Time elapsed: 9354ms
Connecting to http://www.youtube.com... Connected!
Downloading populars... Done!

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/catzzzzzzzzz... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Retrieved list from cache.

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/dancesvideoo... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: dancesvideoo
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Retrieved video 'catzzzzzzzzz' from cache.

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/someothervid... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: someothervid
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Time elapsed: 5875ms
Time saved by caching proxy: 3479ms

他言語での Proxy

Proxy を C# で Proxy を C++ で Proxy を Go で Proxy を PHP で Proxy を Python で Proxy を Ruby で Proxy を Rust で Proxy を Swift で Proxy を TypeScript で