Ésta es una vista previa de la versión en español. Por favor, envíanos un mensaje si quieres compartir tu opinión o reportar un error.
Proxy

Proxy en Java

Proxy es un patrón de diseño estructural que proporciona un objeto que actúa como sustituto de un objeto de servicio real utilizado por un cliente. Un proxy recibe solicitudes del cliente, realiza parte del trabajo (control de acceso, almacenamiento en caché, etc.) y después pasa la solicitud a un objeto de servicio.

El objeto proxy tiene la misma interfaz que un servicio, lo que lo hace intercambiable con un objeto real cuando se pasa a un cliente.

Uso del patrón en Java

Complejidad:

Popularidad:

Ejemplos de uso: Aunque el patrón Proxy no es un invitado habitual en la mayoría de aplicaciones Java, resulta de mucha utilidad en algunos casos especiales. Es insustituible cuando queremos añadir algunos comportamientos adicionales a un objeto de una clase existente sin cambiar el código cliente.

Algunos ejemplos de proxies en bibliotecas Java estándar:

Identificación: Los proxies delegan todo el trabajo real a otro objeto. Cada método proxy debe, al final, referirse a un objeto de servicio, a no ser que el proxy sea una subclase de un servicio.

Proxy de caché

En este ejemplo, el patrón Proxy ayuda a implementar la inicialización diferida y el almacenamiento en caché a una ineficiente biblioteca de integración de YouTube de un tercero.

Proxy es muy valioso cuando tienes que añadir comportamientos a una clase cuyo código no puedes cambiar.

some_cool_media_library

some_cool_media_library/ThirdPartyYoutubeLib.java: Interfaz de servicio remoto

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library;

import java.util.HashMap;

public interface ThirdPartyYouTubeLib {
    HashMap<String, Video> popularVideos();

    Video getVideo(String videoId);
}

some_cool_media_library/ThirdPartyYoutubeClass.java: Implementación de servicio remoto

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library;

import java.util.HashMap;

public class ThirdPartyYouTubeClass implements ThirdPartyYouTubeLib {

    @Override
    public HashMap<String, Video> popularVideos() {
        connectToServer("http://www.youtube.com");
        return getRandomVideos();
    }

    @Override
    public Video getVideo(String videoId) {
        connectToServer("http://www.youtube.com/" + videoId);
        return getSomeVideo(videoId);
    }

    // -----------------------------------------------------------------------
    // Fake methods to simulate network activity. They as slow as a real life.

    private int random(int min, int max) {
        return min + (int) (Math.random() * ((max - min) + 1));
    }

    private void experienceNetworkLatency() {
        int randomLatency = random(5, 10);
        for (int i = 0; i < randomLatency; i++) {
            try {
                Thread.sleep(100);
            } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
                ex.printStackTrace();
            }
        }
    }

    private void connectToServer(String server) {
        System.out.print("Connecting to " + server + "... ");
        experienceNetworkLatency();
        System.out.print("Connected!" + "\n");
    }

    private HashMap<String, Video> getRandomVideos() {
        System.out.print("Downloading populars... ");

        experienceNetworkLatency();
        HashMap<String, Video> hmap = new HashMap<String, Video>();
        hmap.put("catzzzzzzzzz", new Video("sadgahasgdas", "Catzzzz.avi"));
        hmap.put("mkafksangasj", new Video("mkafksangasj", "Dog play with ball.mp4"));
        hmap.put("dancesvideoo", new Video("asdfas3ffasd", "Dancing video.mpq"));
        hmap.put("dlsdk5jfslaf", new Video("dlsdk5jfslaf", "Barcelona vs RealM.mov"));
        hmap.put("3sdfgsd1j333", new Video("3sdfgsd1j333", "Programing lesson#1.avi"));

        System.out.print("Done!" + "\n");
        return hmap;
    }

    private Video getSomeVideo(String videoId) {
        System.out.print("Downloading video... ");

        experienceNetworkLatency();
        Video video = new Video(videoId, "Some video title");

        System.out.print("Done!" + "\n");
        return video;
    }

}

some_cool_media_library/Video.java: Archivo de video

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library;

public class Video {
    public String id;
    public String title;
    public String data;

    Video(String id, String title) {
        this.id = id;
        this.title = title;
        this.data = "Random video.";
    }
}

proxy

proxy/YoutubeCacheProxy.java: Proxy de caché

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.proxy;

import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeClass;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeLib;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.Video;

import java.util.HashMap;

public class YouTubeCacheProxy implements ThirdPartyYouTubeLib {
    private ThirdPartyYouTubeLib youtubeService;
    private HashMap<String, Video> cachePopular = new HashMap<String, Video>();
    private HashMap<String, Video> cacheAll = new HashMap<String, Video>();

    public YouTubeCacheProxy() {
        this.youtubeService = new ThirdPartyYouTubeClass();
    }

    @Override
    public HashMap<String, Video> popularVideos() {
        if (cachePopular.isEmpty()) {
            cachePopular = youtubeService.popularVideos();
        } else {
            System.out.println("Retrieved list from cache.");
        }
        return cachePopular;
    }

    @Override
    public Video getVideo(String videoId) {
        Video video = cacheAll.get(videoId);
        if (video == null) {
            video = youtubeService.getVideo(videoId);
            cacheAll.put(videoId, video);
        } else {
            System.out.println("Retrieved video '" + videoId + "' from cache.");
        }
        return video;
    }

    public void reset() {
        cachePopular.clear();
        cacheAll.clear();
    }
}

downloader

downloader/YoutubeDownloader.java: Aplicación de descarga de medios

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example.downloader;

import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeLib;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.Video;

import java.util.HashMap;

public class YouTubeDownloader {
    private ThirdPartyYouTubeLib api;

    public YouTubeDownloader(ThirdPartyYouTubeLib api) {
        this.api = api;
    }

    public void renderVideoPage(String videoId) {
        Video video = api.getVideo(videoId);
        System.out.println("\n-------------------------------");
        System.out.println("Video page (imagine fancy HTML)");
        System.out.println("ID: " + video.id);
        System.out.println("Title: " + video.title);
        System.out.println("Video: " + video.data);
        System.out.println("-------------------------------\n");
    }

    public void renderPopularVideos() {
        HashMap<String, Video> list = api.popularVideos();
        System.out.println("\n-------------------------------");
        System.out.println("Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)");
        for (Video video : list.values()) {
            System.out.println("ID: " + video.id + " / Title: " + video.title);
        }
        System.out.println("-------------------------------\n");
    }
}

Demo.java: Código de inicialización

package refactoring_guru.proxy.example;

import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.downloader.YouTubeDownloader;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.proxy.YouTubeCacheProxy;
import refactoring_guru.proxy.example.some_cool_media_library.ThirdPartyYouTubeClass;

public class Demo {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        YouTubeDownloader naiveDownloader = new YouTubeDownloader(new ThirdPartyYouTubeClass());
        YouTubeDownloader smartDownloader = new YouTubeDownloader(new YouTubeCacheProxy());

        long naive = test(naiveDownloader);
        long smart = test(smartDownloader);
        System.out.print("Time saved by caching proxy: " + (naive - smart) + "ms");

    }

    private static long test(YouTubeDownloader downloader) {
        long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();

        // User behavior in our app:
        downloader.renderPopularVideos();
        downloader.renderVideoPage("catzzzzzzzzz");
        downloader.renderPopularVideos();
        downloader.renderVideoPage("dancesvideoo");
        // Users might visit the same page quite often.
        downloader.renderVideoPage("catzzzzzzzzz");
        downloader.renderVideoPage("someothervid");

        long estimatedTime = System.currentTimeMillis() - startTime;
        System.out.print("Time elapsed: " + estimatedTime + "ms\n");
        return estimatedTime;
    }
}

OutputDemo.txt: Resultado de la ejecución

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com... Connected!
Downloading populars... Done!

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/catzzzzzzzzz... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com... Connected!
Downloading populars... Done!

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/dancesvideoo... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: dancesvideoo
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/catzzzzzzzzz... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/someothervid... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: someothervid
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Time elapsed: 9354ms
Connecting to http://www.youtube.com... Connected!
Downloading populars... Done!

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/catzzzzzzzzz... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Retrieved list from cache.

-------------------------------
Most popular videos on YouTube (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: sadgahasgdas / Title: Catzzzz.avi
ID: asdfas3ffasd / Title: Dancing video.mpq
ID: 3sdfgsd1j333 / Title: Programing lesson#1.avi
ID: mkafksangasj / Title: Dog play with ball.mp4
ID: dlsdk5jfslaf / Title: Barcelona vs RealM.mov
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/dancesvideoo... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: dancesvideoo
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Retrieved video 'catzzzzzzzzz' from cache.

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: catzzzzzzzzz
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Connecting to http://www.youtube.com/someothervid... Connected!
Downloading video... Done!

-------------------------------
Video page (imagine fancy HTML)
ID: someothervid
Title: Some video title
Video: Random video.
-------------------------------

Time elapsed: 5875ms
Time saved by caching proxy: 3479ms

Proxy en otros lenguajes

Patrones de diseño: Proxy en C# Patrones de diseño: Proxy en C++ Patrones de diseño: Proxy en PHP Patrones de diseño: Proxy en Python Patrones de diseño: Proxy en Ruby Patrones de diseño: Proxy en Swift Patrones de diseño: Proxy en TypeScript