Java: Снимок

Memento Снимок Memento

Снимок — это поведенческий паттерн, позволяющий делать снимки внутреннего состояния объектов, а затем восстанавливать их.

При этом Снимок не раскрывает подробностей реализации объектов, и клиент не имеет доступа к защищённой информации объекта.

Подробней о Снимке

Особенности паттерна в Java

Сложность:

Популярность:

Применимость: Принцип Снимка в Java чаще всего реализуют с помощью сериализации. Но это не единственный, да и не самый эффективный метод сохранения состояния объектов во время выполнения программы.

Примеры Снимка в стандартных библиотеках Java:

Пример: Отмена в редакторе фигур

В данном графическом редакторе мы можем менять цвет и позицию фигур. Пользователь может отменять или повторять действия, используя горячие клавиши.

Механизм отмены построен при помощи паттерна Снимок и Команды. Перед совершением команды, редактор сохраняет в истории снимок своего состояния. Если нужно отменить команду, редактор берет последнюю запись из истории и восстанавливает состояние из снимка. Для последующей отмены берется команда дальше из истории.

Отмененные команды хранятся в истории пока пользователь не совершит какое-то действие. Это нужно, чтобы иметь возможность повторять отменённые команды.

editor

editor/Editor.java: Редактор

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.editor;

import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.commands.Command;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.history.History;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.history.Memento;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes.CompoundShape;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes.Shape;

import javax.swing.*;
import java.io.*;
import java.util.Base64;

public class Editor extends JComponent {
    private Canvas canvas;
    private CompoundShape allShapes = new CompoundShape();
    private History history;

    public Editor() {
        canvas = new Canvas(this);
        history = new History();
    }

    public void loadShapes(Shape... shapes) {
        allShapes.clear();
        allShapes.add(shapes);
        canvas.refresh();
    }

    public CompoundShape getShapes() {
        return allShapes;
    }

    public void execute(Command c) {
        history.push(c, new Memento(this));
        c.execute();
    }

    public void undo() {
        if (history.undo())
            canvas.repaint();
    }

    public void redo() {
        if (history.redo())
            canvas.repaint();
    }

    public String backup() {
        try {
            ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
            ObjectOutputStream oos = new ObjectOutputStream(baos);
            oos.writeObject(this.allShapes);
            oos.close();
            return Base64.getEncoder().encodeToString(baos.toByteArray());
        } catch (IOException e) {
            return "";
        }
    }

    public void restore(String state) {
        try {
            byte[] data = Base64.getDecoder().decode(state);
            ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(new ByteArrayInputStream(data));
            this.allShapes = (CompoundShape) ois.readObject();
            ois.close();
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            System.out.print("ClassNotFoundException occurred.");
        } catch (IOException e) {
            System.out.print("IOException occurred.");
        }
    }
}

editor/Canvas.java: Холст

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.editor;

import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.commands.ColorCommand;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.commands.MoveCommand;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes.Shape;

import javax.swing.*;
import javax.swing.border.Border;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.image.BufferedImage;

class Canvas extends java.awt.Canvas {
    private Editor editor;
    private JFrame frame;
    private static final int PADDING = 10;

    Canvas(Editor editor) {
        this.editor = editor;
        createFrame();
        attachKeyboardListeners();
        attachMouseListeners();
        refresh();
    }

    private void createFrame() {
        frame = new JFrame();
        frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(WindowConstants.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
        frame.setLocationRelativeTo(null);

        JPanel contentPanel = new JPanel();
        Border padding = BorderFactory.createEmptyBorder(PADDING, PADDING, PADDING, PADDING);
        contentPanel.setBorder(padding);
        contentPanel.setLayout(new BoxLayout(contentPanel, BoxLayout.Y_AXIS));
        frame.setContentPane(contentPanel);

        contentPanel.add(new JLabel("Select and drag to move."), BorderLayout.PAGE_END);
        contentPanel.add(new JLabel("Right click to change color."), BorderLayout.PAGE_END);
        contentPanel.add(new JLabel("Undo: Ctrl+Z, Redo: Ctrl+R"), BorderLayout.PAGE_END);
        contentPanel.add(this);
        frame.setVisible(true);
        contentPanel.setBackground(Color.LIGHT_GRAY);
    }

    private void attachKeyboardListeners() {
        addKeyListener(new KeyAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void keyPressed(KeyEvent e) {
                if ((e.getModifiers() & KeyEvent.CTRL_MASK) != 0) {
                    switch (e.getKeyCode()) {
                        case KeyEvent.VK_Z:
                            editor.undo();
                            break;
                        case KeyEvent.VK_R:
                            editor.redo();
                            break;
                    }
                }
            }
        });
    }

    private void attachMouseListeners() {
        MouseAdapter colorizer = new MouseAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
                if (e.getButton() != MouseEvent.BUTTON3) {
                    return;
                }
                Shape target = editor.getShapes().getChildAt(e.getX(), e.getY());
                if (target != null) {
                    editor.execute(new ColorCommand(editor, new Color((int) (Math.random() * 0x1000000))));
                    repaint();
                }
            }
        };
        addMouseListener(colorizer);

        MouseAdapter selector = new MouseAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void mousePressed(MouseEvent e) {
                if (e.getButton() != MouseEvent.BUTTON1) {
                    return;
                }

                Shape target = editor.getShapes().getChildAt(e.getX(), e.getY());
                boolean ctrl = (e.getModifiers() & ActionEvent.CTRL_MASK) == ActionEvent.CTRL_MASK;

                if (target == null) {
                    if (!ctrl) {
                        editor.getShapes().unSelect();
                    }
                } else {
                    if (ctrl) {
                        if (target.isSelected()) {
                            target.unSelect();
                        } else {
                            target.select();
                        }
                    } else {
                        if (!target.isSelected()) {
                            editor.getShapes().unSelect();
                        }
                        target.select();
                    }
                }
                repaint();
            }
        };
        addMouseListener(selector);


        MouseAdapter dragger = new MouseAdapter() {
            MoveCommand moveCommand;

            @Override
            public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent e) {
                if ((e.getModifiersEx() & MouseEvent.BUTTON1_DOWN_MASK) != MouseEvent.BUTTON1_DOWN_MASK) {
                    return;
                }
                if (moveCommand == null) {
                    moveCommand = new MoveCommand(editor);
                    moveCommand.start(e.getX(), e.getY());
                }
                moveCommand.move(e.getX(), e.getY());
                repaint();
            }

            @Override
            public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent e) {
                if (e.getButton() != MouseEvent.BUTTON1 || moveCommand == null) {
                    return;
                }
                moveCommand.stop(e.getX(), e.getY());
                editor.execute(moveCommand);
                this.moveCommand = null;
                repaint();
            }
        };
        addMouseListener(dragger);
        addMouseMotionListener(dragger);
    }

    public int getWidth() {
        return editor.getShapes().getX() + editor.getShapes().getWidth() + PADDING;
    }

    public int getHeight() {
        return editor.getShapes().getY() + editor.getShapes().getHeight() + PADDING;
    }

    void refresh() {
        this.setSize(getWidth(), getHeight());
        frame.pack();
    }

    public void update(Graphics g) {
        paint(g);
    }

    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        BufferedImage buffer = new BufferedImage(this.getWidth(), this.getHeight(), BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
        Graphics2D ig2 = buffer.createGraphics();
        ig2.setBackground(Color.WHITE);
        ig2.clearRect(0, 0, this.getWidth(), this.getHeight());

        editor.getShapes().paint(buffer.getGraphics());

        graphics.drawImage(buffer, 0, 0, null);
    }
}

history

history/History.java: История использует снимки и команды

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.history;

import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.commands.Command;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class History {
    private List<Pair> history = new ArrayList<Pair>();
    private int virtualSize = 0;

    private class Pair {
        Command command;
        Memento memento;
        Pair(Command c, Memento m) {
            command = c;
            memento = m;
        }

        public Command getCommand() {
            return command;
        }

        public Memento getMemento() {
            return memento;
        }
    }

    public void push(Command c, Memento m) {
        if (virtualSize != history.size() && virtualSize > 0) {
            history = history.subList(0, virtualSize - 1);
        }
        history.add(new Pair(c, m));
        virtualSize = history.size();
    }

    public boolean undo() {
        Pair pair = getUndo();
        if (pair == null) {
            return false;
        }
        System.out.println("Undoing: " + pair.getCommand().getName());
        pair.getMemento().restore();
        return true;
    }

    public boolean redo() {
        Pair pair = getRedo();
        if (pair == null) {
            return false;
        }
        System.out.println("Redoing: " + pair.getCommand().getName());
        pair.getMemento().restore();
        pair.getCommand().execute();
        return true;
    }

    public Pair getUndo() {
        if (virtualSize == 0) {
            return null;
        }
        virtualSize = Math.max(0, virtualSize - 1);
        return history.get(virtualSize);
    }

    public Pair getRedo() {
        if (virtualSize == history.size()) {
            return null;
        }
        virtualSize = Math.min(history.size(), virtualSize + 1);
        return history.get(virtualSize - 1);
    }
}

history/Memento.java: Снимок

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.history;

import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.editor.Editor;

public class Memento {
    private String backup;
    private Editor editor;

    public Memento(Editor editor) {
        this.editor = editor;
        this.backup = editor.backup();
    }

    public void restore() {
        editor.restore(backup);
    }
}

commands

commands/Command.java: Интерфейс команд

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.commands;

public interface Command {
    public String getName();
    public void execute();
}

commands/ColorCommand.java: Команда смены цвета

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.commands;

import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.editor.Editor;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes.Shape;

import java.awt.*;

public class ColorCommand implements Command {
    private Editor editor;
    private Color color;

    public ColorCommand(Editor editor, Color color) {
        this.editor = editor;
        this.color = color;
    }

    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return "Colorize: " + color.toString();
    }

    @Override
    public void execute() {
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.setColor(color);
        }
    }
}

commands/MoveCommand.java: Команда перемещения

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.commands;

import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.editor.Editor;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes.Shape;

public class MoveCommand implements Command {
    private Editor editor;
    private int startX, startY;
    private int endX, endY;

    public MoveCommand(Editor editor) {
        this.editor = editor;
    }

    @Override
    public String getName() {
        return "Move by X:" + (endX - startX) + " Y:" + (endY - startY);
    }

    public void start(int x, int y) {
        startX = x;
        startY = y;
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.drag();
        }
    }

    public void move(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.moveTo(x - startX, y - startY);
        }
    }

    public void stop(int x, int y) {
        endX = x;
        endY = y;
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.drop();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void execute() {
        for (Shape child : editor.getShapes().getSelected()) {
            child.moveBy(endX - startX, endY - startY);
        }
    }
}

shapes: Разнообразные фигуры

shapes/Shape.java

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes;

import java.awt.*;
import java.io.Serializable;

public interface Shape extends Serializable {
    public int getX();
    public int getY();
    public int getWidth();
    public int getHeight();
    public void drag();
    public void moveTo(int x, int y);
    public void moveBy(int x, int y);
    public void drop();
    public Boolean isInsideBounds(int x, int y);
    public Color getColor();
    public void setColor(Color color);
    public void select();
    public void unSelect();
    public Boolean isSelected();
    public void paint(Graphics graphics);
}

shapes/BaseShape.java

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public abstract class BaseShape implements Shape {
    protected int x, y;
    private int dx = 0, dy = 0;
    protected Color color;
    protected Boolean selected = false;

    BaseShape(int x, int y, Color color) {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        this.color = color;
    }

    @Override
    public int getX() {
        return x;
    }

    @Override
    public int getY() {
        return y;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return 0;
    }

    @Override
    public void drag() {
        dx = x;
        dy = y;
    }

    @Override
    public void moveTo(int x, int y) {
        this.x = dx + x;
        this.y = dy + y;
    }

    @Override
    public void moveBy(int x, int y) {
        this.x += x;
        this.y += y;
    }

    @Override
    public void drop() {
        this.x = dx;
        this.y = dy;
    }

    @Override
    public Boolean isInsideBounds(int x, int y) {
        return x > getX() && x < (getX() + getWidth()) &&
                y > getY() && y < (getY() + getHeight());
    }

    @Override
    public Color getColor() {
        return color;
    }

    @Override
    public void setColor(Color color) {
        this.color = color;
    }

    @Override
    public void select() {
        selected = true;
    }

    @Override
    public void unSelect() {
        selected = false;
    }

    @Override
    public Boolean isSelected() {
        return selected;
    }

    void enableSelectionStyle(Graphics graphics) {
        graphics.setColor(Color.LIGHT_GRAY);

        Graphics2D g2 = (Graphics2D) graphics;
        Stroke backup = g2.getStroke();
        float dash1[] = {2.0f};
        g2.setStroke(new BasicStroke(1.0f,
                BasicStroke.CAP_BUTT,
                BasicStroke.JOIN_MITER,
                2.0f, dash1, 0.0f));
    }

    void disableSelectionStyle(Graphics graphics) {
        graphics.setColor(color);
        Graphics2D g2 = (Graphics2D) graphics;
        g2.setStroke(new BasicStroke());
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        if (isSelected()) {
            enableSelectionStyle(graphics);
        }
        else {
            disableSelectionStyle(graphics);
        }

        // ...
    }
}

shapes/Circle.java

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public class Circle extends BaseShape {
    public int radius;

    public Circle(int x, int y, int radius, Color color) {
        super(x, y, color);
        this.radius = radius;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return radius * 2;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return radius * 2;
    }

    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        super.paint(graphics);
        graphics.drawOval(x, y, getWidth() - 1, getHeight() - 1);
    }
}

shapes/Dot.java

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public class Dot extends BaseShape {
    private final int DOT_SIZE = 3;

    public Dot(int x, int y, Color color) {
        super(x, y, color);
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return DOT_SIZE;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return DOT_SIZE;
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        super.paint(graphics);
        graphics.fillRect(x - 1, y - 1, getWidth(), getHeight());
    }
}

shapes/Rectangle.java

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes;

import java.awt.*;

public class Rectangle extends BaseShape {
    public int width;
    public int height;

    public Rectangle(int x, int y, int width, int height, Color color) {
        super(x, y, color);
        this.width = width;
        this.height = height;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        return width;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        return height;
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        super.paint(graphics);
        graphics.drawRect(x, y, getWidth() - 1, getHeight() - 1);
    }
}

shapes/CompoundShape.java

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes;

import java.awt.*;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.List;

public class CompoundShape extends BaseShape {
    protected List<Shape> children = new ArrayList<>();

    public CompoundShape(Shape... components) {
        super(0, 0, Color.BLACK);
        add(components);
    }

    public void add(Shape component) {
        children.add(component);
    }

    public void add(Shape... components) {
        children.addAll(Arrays.asList(components));
    }

    public void remove(Shape child) {
        int i = children.indexOf(child);
        children.remove(i);
    }

    public void remove(Shape... components) {
        children.removeAll(Arrays.asList(components));
    }

    public void clear() {
        children.clear();
    }

    @Override
    public int getX() {
        if (children.size() == 0) {
            return 0;
        }
        int x = children.get(0).getX();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.getX() < x) {
                x = child.getX();
            }
        }
        return x;
    }

    @Override
    public int getY() {
        if (children.size() == 0) {
            return 0;
        }
        int y = children.get(0).getY();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.getY() < y) {
                y = child.getY();
            }
        }
        return y;
    }

    @Override
    public int getWidth() {
        int maxWidth = 0;
        int x = getX();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            int childsRelativeX = child.getX() - x;
            int childWidth = childsRelativeX + child.getWidth();
            if (childWidth > maxWidth) {
                maxWidth = childWidth;
            }
        }
        return maxWidth;
    }

    @Override
    public int getHeight() {
        int maxHeight = 0;
        int y = getY();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            int childsRelativeY = child.getY() - y;
            int childHeight = childsRelativeY + child.getHeight();
            if (childHeight > maxHeight) {
                maxHeight = childHeight;
            }
        }
        return maxHeight;
    }

    @Override
    public void drag() {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.drag();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void drop() {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.drop();
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void moveTo(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.moveTo(x, y);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void moveBy(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.moveBy(x, y);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public Boolean isInsideBounds(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.isInsideBounds(x, y)) {
                return true;
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    @Override
    public void setColor(Color color) {
        super.setColor(color);
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.setColor(color);
        }
    }

    @Override
    public void unSelect() {
        super.unSelect();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.unSelect();
        }
    }

    public Shape getChildAt(int x, int y) {
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.isInsideBounds(x, y)) {
                return child;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    public Boolean selectChildAt(int x, int y) {
        Shape child = getChildAt(x,y);
        if (child != null) {
            child.select();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    public List<Shape> getSelected() {
        List<Shape> selected = new ArrayList<>();
        for (Shape child : children) {
            if (child.isSelected()) {
                selected.add(child);
            }
        }
        return selected;
    }

    @Override
    public void paint(Graphics graphics) {
        if (isSelected()) {
            enableSelectionStyle(graphics);
            graphics.drawRect(getX() - 1, getY() - 1, getWidth() + 1, getHeight() + 1);
            disableSelectionStyle(graphics);
        }

        for (Shape child : children) {
            child.paint(graphics);
        }
    }
}

Demo.java: Клиентский код

package refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor;

import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.editor.Editor;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes.*;
import refactoring_guru.patterns.memento.shape_editor.shapes.Rectangle;

import java.awt.*;

public class Demo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Editor editor = new Editor();
        editor.loadShapes(
                new Circle(10, 10, 10, Color.BLUE),

                new CompoundShape(
                        new Circle(110, 110, 50, Color.RED),
                        new Dot(160, 160, Color.RED)
                ),

                new CompoundShape(
                        new Rectangle(250, 250, 100, 100, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(240, 240, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(240, 360, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(360, 360, Color.GREEN),
                        new Dot(360, 240, Color.GREEN)
                )
        );
    }
}

OutputDemo.png: Снимок работы программы