Also known as



Represent an operation to be performed on the elements of an object structure. Visitor lets you define a new operation without changing the classes of the elements on which it operates.

Structure of design pattern

Visitor pattern structure


// A complex hierarchy of components.
interface Graphic is
    method move(x, y)
    method draw()
    method accept(v: Visitor)

class Shape implements Graphic is
    field id

    // It is crucial to implement the accept() method in every single component,
    // not just a base class. It helps the program to pick a proper method on
    // the visitor class in case if a given component's type is unknow.
    method accept(v: Visitor) is

class Dot extends Shape is
    field x, y
    // ...
    method accept(v: Visitor) is

class Circle extends Dot is
    field radius
    // ...
    method accept(v: Visitor) is

class Rectangle extends Shape is
    field width, height
    // ...
    method accept(v: Visitor) is

class CompoundGraphic implements Graphic is
    field children: array of Graphic
    // ...
    method accept(v: Visitor) is

// Visitor interface must have visiting methods for the every single component.
// Note that each time you add a new class to the component history, you will
// need to add a method to the visitor classes. In this case, you might consider
// avoiding visitor altogether.
interface Visitor is
    method visitDot(d: Dot)
    method visitCircle(c: Circle)
    method visitRectangle(r: Rectangle)
    method visitCompoundGraphic(cs: CompoundGraphic)

// Concrete visitor adds a single operation to the entire hierarchy of
// components. Which means that if you need to add multiple operations, you will
// have to create several visitor.
class XMLExportVisitor is
    method visitDot(d: Dot) is
        Export dot's id and center coordinates.

    method visitCircle(c: Circle) is
        Export circle's id, center coordinates and radius.

    method visitRectangle(r: Rectangle) is
        Export rectangle's id, left-top coordinates, width and height.

    method visitCompoundGraphic(cg: CompoundGraphic) is
        Export shape's id and the list of children ids.

// Application can use visitor along with any set of components without checking
// their type first. Double dispatch mechanism guarantees that a proper visiting
// method will be called for any given component.
class Application is
    field allGraphics: array of Graphic

    method export() is
        exportVisitor = new XMLExportVisitor()

        foreach (allGraphics as graphic)

Implementations in Different Programming Languages