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Prototype

Prototype em Python

O Prototype é um padrão de projeto criacional que permite a clonagem de objetos, mesmo complexos, sem acoplamento à suas classes específicas.

Todas as classes de prototypes(protótipos) devem ter uma interface comum que permita copiar objetos, mesmo que suas classes concretas sejam desconhecidas. Objetos protótipos podem produzir cópias completas, pois objetos da mesma classe podem acessar os campos privados um do outro.

Uso do padrão em Python

Complexidade:

Popularidade:

Exemplos de uso: O padrão Prototype está disponível e pronto para uso em Python com a interface Cloneable.

Identificação: O prototype pode ser facilmente reconhecido pelos métodos clone ou copy, etc.

Exemplo conceitual

Este exemplo ilustra a estrutura do padrão de projeto Prototype. Ele se concentra em responder a estas perguntas:

  • De quais classes ele consiste?
  • Quais papéis essas classes desempenham?
  • De que maneira os elementos do padrão estão relacionados?

main.py: Exemplo conceitual

import copy


class SelfReferencingEntity:
    def __init__(self):
        self.parent = None

    def set_parent(self, parent):
        self.parent = parent


class SomeComponent:
    """
    Python provides its own interface of Prototype via `copy.copy` and
    `copy.deepcopy` functions. And any class that wants to implement custom
    implementations have to override `__copy__` and `__deepcopy__` member
    functions.
    """

    def __init__(self, some_int, some_list_of_objects, some_circular_ref):
        self.some_int = some_int
        self.some_list_of_objects = some_list_of_objects
        self.some_circular_ref = some_circular_ref

    def __copy__(self):
        """
        Create a shallow copy. This method will be called whenever someone calls
        `copy.copy` with this object and the returned value is returned as the
        new shallow copy.
        """

        # First, let's create copies of the nested objects.
        some_list_of_objects = copy.copy(self.some_list_of_objects)
        some_circular_ref = copy.copy(self.some_circular_ref)

        # Then, let's clone the object itself, using the prepared clones of the
        # nested objects.
        new = self.__class__(
            self.some_int, some_list_of_objects, some_circular_ref
        )
        new.__dict__.update(self.__dict__)

        return new

    def __deepcopy__(self, memo={}):
        """
        Create a deep copy. This method will be called whenever someone calls
        `copy.deepcopy` with this object and the returned value is returned as
        the new deep copy.

        What is the use of the argument `memo`? Memo is the dictionary that is
        used by the `deepcopy` library to prevent infinite recursive copies in
        instances of circular references. Pass it to all the `deepcopy` calls
        you make in the `__deepcopy__` implementation to prevent infinite
        recursions.
        """

        # First, let's create copies of the nested objects.
        some_list_of_objects = copy.deepcopy(self.some_list_of_objects, memo)
        some_circular_ref = copy.deepcopy(self.some_circular_ref, memo)

        # Then, let's clone the object itself, using the prepared clones of the
        # nested objects.
        new = self.__class__(
            self.some_int, some_list_of_objects, some_circular_ref
        )
        new.__dict__ = copy.deepcopy(self.__dict__, memo)

        return new


if __name__ == "__main__":

    list_of_objects = [1, {1, 2, 3}, [1, 2, 3]]
    circular_ref = SelfReferencingEntity()
    component = SomeComponent(23, list_of_objects, circular_ref)
    circular_ref.set_parent(component)

    shallow_copied_component = copy.copy(component)

    # Let's change the list in shallow_copied_component and see if it changes in
    # component.
    shallow_copied_component.some_list_of_objects.append("another object")
    if component.some_list_of_objects[-1] == "another object":
        print(
            "Adding elements to `shallow_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects adds it to `component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )
    else:
        print(
            "Adding elements to `shallow_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects doesn't add it to `component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )

    # Let's change the set in the list of objects.
    component.some_list_of_objects[1].add(4)
    if 4 in shallow_copied_component.some_list_of_objects[1]:
        print(
            "Changing objects in the `component`'s some_list_of_objects "
            "changes that object in `shallow_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )
    else:
        print(
            "Changing objects in the `component`'s some_list_of_objects "
            "doesn't change that object in `shallow_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )

    deep_copied_component = copy.deepcopy(component)

    # Let's change the list in deep_copied_component and see if it changes in
    # component.
    deep_copied_component.some_list_of_objects.append("one more object")
    if component.some_list_of_objects[-1] == "one more object":
        print(
            "Adding elements to `deep_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects adds it to `component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )
    else:
        print(
            "Adding elements to `deep_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects doesn't add it to `component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )

    # Let's change the set in the list of objects.
    component.some_list_of_objects[1].add(10)
    if 10 in deep_copied_component.some_list_of_objects[1]:
        print(
            "Changing objects in the `component`'s some_list_of_objects "
            "changes that object in `deep_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )
    else:
        print(
            "Changing objects in the `component`'s some_list_of_objects "
            "doesn't change that object in `deep_copied_component`'s "
            "some_list_of_objects."
        )

    print(
        f"id(deep_copied_component.some_circular_ref.parent): "
        f"{id(deep_copied_component.some_circular_ref.parent)}"
    )
    print(
        f"id(deep_copied_component.some_circular_ref.parent.some_circular_ref.parent): "
        f"{id(deep_copied_component.some_circular_ref.parent.some_circular_ref.parent)}"
    )
    print(
        "^^ This shows that deepcopied objects contain same reference, they "
        "are not cloned repeatedly."
    )

Output.txt: Resultados da execução

Adding elements to `shallow_copied_component`'s some_list_of_objects adds it to `component`'s some_list_of_objects.
Changing objects in the `component`'s some_list_of_objects changes that object in `shallow_copied_component`'s some_list_of_objects.
Adding elements to `deep_copied_component`'s some_list_of_objects doesn't add it to `component`'s some_list_of_objects.
Changing objects in the `component`'s some_list_of_objects doesn't change that object in `deep_copied_component`'s some_list_of_objects.
id(deep_copied_component.some_circular_ref.parent): 4429472784
id(deep_copied_component.some_circular_ref.parent.some_circular_ref.parent): 4429472784
^^ This shows that deepcopied objects contain same reference, they are not cloned repeatedly.

Prototype em outras linguagens

Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em Java Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em C# Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em C++ Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em PHP Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em Ruby Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em Swift Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em TypeScript Padrões de Projeto: Prototype em Go