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Adapter in Rust

Adapter is a structural design pattern, which allows incompatible objects to collaborate.

The Adapter acts as a wrapper between two objects. It catches calls for one object and transforms them to format and interface recognizable by the second object.

Adapter in Rust

In this example, the trait SpecificTarget is incompatible with a call function which accepts trait Target only.

fn call(target: impl Target);

The adapter helps to pass the incompatible interface to the call function.

let target = TargetAdapter::new(specific_target);

use crate::{adaptee::SpecificTarget, Target};

/// Converts adaptee's specific interface to a compatible `Target` output.
pub struct TargetAdapter {
    adaptee: SpecificTarget,

impl TargetAdapter {
    pub fn new(adaptee: SpecificTarget) -> Self {
        Self { adaptee }

impl Target for TargetAdapter {
    fn request(&self) -> String {
        // Here's the "adaptation" of a specific output to a compatible output.

pub struct SpecificTarget;

impl SpecificTarget {
    pub fn specific_request(&self) -> String {
        ".tseuqer cificepS".into()

pub trait Target {
    fn request(&self) -> String;

pub struct OrdinaryTarget;

impl Target for OrdinaryTarget {
    fn request(&self) -> String {
        "Ordinary request.".into()

mod adaptee;
mod adapter;
mod target;

use adaptee::SpecificTarget;
use adapter::TargetAdapter;
use target::{OrdinaryTarget, Target};

/// Calls any object of a `Target` trait.
/// To understand the Adapter pattern better, imagine that this is
/// a client code, which can operate over a specific interface only
/// (`Target` trait only). It means that an incompatible interface cannot be
/// passed here without an adapter.
fn call(target: impl Target) {
    println!("'{}'", target.request());

fn main() {
    let target = OrdinaryTarget;

    print!("A compatible target can be directly called: ");

    let adaptee = SpecificTarget;

        "Adaptee is incompatible with client: '{}'",

    let adapter = TargetAdapter::new(adaptee);

    print!("But with adapter client can call its method: ");


A compatible target can be directly called: 'Ordinary request.'
Adaptee is incompatible with client: '.tseuqer cificepS'
But with adapter client can call its method: 'Specific request.'

Adapter in Other Languages

Adapter in C# Adapter in C++ Adapter in Go Adapter in Java Adapter in PHP Adapter in Python Adapter in Ruby Adapter in Swift Adapter in TypeScript