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Facade

Facade in TypeScript

Facade is a structural design pattern that provides a simplified (but limited) interface to a complex system of classes, library or framework.

While Facade decreases the overall complexity of the application, it also helps to move unwanted dependencies to one place.

Learn more about Facade

Usage of the pattern in TypeScript

Complexity:

Popularity:

Usage examples: The Facade pattern is commonly used in apps written in TypeScript. It’s especially handy when working with complex libraries and APIs.

Identification: Facade can be recognized in a class that has a simple interface, but delegates most of the work to other classes. Usually, facades manage full life cycle of objects they use.

Conceptual Example

This example illustrates the structure of the Facade design pattern. It focuses on answering these questions:

  • What classes does it consist of?
  • What roles do these classes play?
  • In what way the elements of the pattern are related?

index.ts: Conceptual Example

/**
 * The Facade class provides a simple interface to the complex logic of one or
 * several subsystems. The Facade delegates the client requests to the
 * appropriate objects within the subsystem. The Facade is also responsible for
 * managing their lifecycle. All of this shields the client from the undesired
 * complexity of the subsystem.
 */
class Facade {
    protected subsystem1: Subsystem1;

    protected subsystem2: Subsystem2;

    /**
     * Depending on your application's needs, you can provide the Facade with
     * existing subsystem objects or force the Facade to create them on its own.
     */
    constructor(subsystem1: Subsystem1 = null, subsystem2: Subsystem2 = null) {
        this.subsystem1 = subsystem1 || new Subsystem1();
        this.subsystem2 = subsystem2 || new Subsystem2();
    }

    /**
     * The Facade's methods are convenient shortcuts to the sophisticated
     * functionality of the subsystems. However, clients get only to a fraction
     * of a subsystem's capabilities.
     */
    public operation(): string {
        let result = 'Facade initializes subsystems:\n';
        result += this.subsystem1.operation1();
        result += this.subsystem2.operation1();
        result += 'Facade orders subsystems to perform the action:\n';
        result += this.subsystem1.operationN();
        result += this.subsystem2.operationZ();

        return result;
    }
}

/**
 * The Subsystem can accept requests either from the facade or client directly.
 * In any case, to the Subsystem, the Facade is yet another client, and it's not
 * a part of the Subsystem.
 */
class Subsystem1 {
    public operation1(): string {
        return 'Subsystem1: Ready!\n';
    }

    // ...

    public operationN(): string {
        return 'Subsystem1: Go!\n';
    }
}

/**
 * Some facades can work with multiple subsystems at the same time.
 */
class Subsystem2 {
    public operation1(): string {
        return 'Subsystem2: Get ready!\n';
    }

    // ...

    public operationZ(): string {
        return 'Subsystem2: Fire!';
    }
}

/**
 * The client code works with complex subsystems through a simple interface
 * provided by the Facade. When a facade manages the lifecycle of the subsystem,
 * the client might not even know about the existence of the subsystem. This
 * approach lets you keep the complexity under control.
 */
function clientCode(facade: Facade) {
    // ...

    console.log(facade.operation());

    // ...
}

/**
 * The client code may have some of the subsystem's objects already created. In
 * this case, it might be worthwhile to initialize the Facade with these objects
 * instead of letting the Facade create new instances.
 */
const subsystem1 = new Subsystem1();
const subsystem2 = new Subsystem2();
const facade = new Facade(subsystem1, subsystem2);
clientCode(facade);

Output.txt: Execution result

Facade initializes subsystems:
Subsystem1: Ready!
Subsystem2: Get ready!
Facade orders subsystems to perform the action:
Subsystem1: Go!
Subsystem2: Fire!

Facade in Other Languages

Design Patterns: Facade in Java Design Patterns: Facade in C# Design Patterns: Facade in PHP Design Patterns: Facade in Python Design Patterns: Facade in Ruby Design Patterns: Facade in Swift