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Template Method

Template Method in TypeScript

Template Method is a behavioral design pattern that allows you to defines a skeleton of an algorithm in a base class and let subclasses override the steps without changing the overall algorithm’s structure.

Learn more about Template Method

Usage of the pattern in TypeScript

Complexity:

Popularity:

Usage examples: The Template Method pattern is quite common in TypeScript frameworks. Developers often use it to provide framework users with a simple means of extending standard functionality using inheritance.

Identification: Template Method can be recognized by behavioral methods which already have a “default” behavior defined by the base class.

Conceptual Example

This example illustrates the structure of the Template Method design pattern. It focuses on answering these questions:

  • What classes does it consists of?
  • What roles do these classes play?
  • In what way the elements of the pattern are related?

index.ts: Conceptual Example

/**
 * The Abstract Class defines a template method that contains a skeleton of some
 * algorithm, composed of calls to (usually) abstract primitive operations.
 *
 * Concrete subclasses should implement these operations, but leave the template
 * method itself intact.
 */
abstract class AbstractClass {
    /**
     * The template method defines the skeleton of an algorithm.
     */
    public templateMethod(): void {
        this.baseOperation1();
        this.requiredOperations1();
        this.baseOperation2();
        this.hook1();
        this.requiredOperation2();
        this.baseOperation3();
        this.hook2();
    }

    /**
     * These operations already have implementations.
     */
    protected baseOperation1(): void {
        console.log('AbstractClass says: I am doing the bulk of the work');
    }

    protected baseOperation2(): void {
        console.log('AbstractClass says: But I let subclasses override some operations');
    }

    protected baseOperation3(): void {
        console.log('AbstractClass says: But I am doing the bulk of the work anyway');
    }

    /**
     * These operations have to be implemented in subclasses.
     */
    protected abstract requiredOperations1(): void;

    protected abstract requiredOperation2(): void;

    /**
     * These are "hooks." Subclasses may override them, but it's not mandatory
     * since the hooks already have default (but empty) implementation. Hooks
     * provide additional extension points in some crucial places of the
     * algorithm.
     */
    protected hook1(): void { }

    protected hook2(): void { }
}

/**
 * Concrete classes have to implement all abstract operations of the base class.
 * They can also override some operations with a default implementation.
 */
class ConcreteClass1 extends AbstractClass {
    protected requiredOperations1(): void {
        console.log('ConcreteClass1 says: Implemented Operation1');
    }

    protected requiredOperation2(): void {
        console.log('ConcreteClass1 says: Implemented Operation2');
    }
}

/**
 * Usually, concrete classes override only a fraction of base class' operations.
 */
class ConcreteClass2 extends AbstractClass {
    protected requiredOperations1(): void {
        console.log('ConcreteClass2 says: Implemented Operation1');
    }

    protected requiredOperation2(): void {
        console.log('ConcreteClass2 says: Implemented Operation2');
    }

    protected hook1(): void {
        console.log('ConcreteClass2 says: Overridden Hook1');
    }
}

/**
 * The client code calls the template method to execute the algorithm. Client
 * code does not have to know the concrete class of an object it works with, as
 * long as it works with objects through the interface of their base class.
 */
function clientCode(abstractClass: AbstractClass) {
    // ...
    abstractClass.templateMethod();
    // ...
}

console.log('Same client code can work with different subclasses:');
clientCode(new ConcreteClass1());
console.log('');

console.log('Same client code can work with different subclasses:');
clientCode(new ConcreteClass2());

Output.txt: Execution result

Same client code can work with different subclasses:
AbstractClass says: I am doing the bulk of the work
ConcreteClass1 says: Implemented Operation1
AbstractClass says: But I let subclasses override some operations
ConcreteClass1 says: Implemented Operation2
AbstractClass says: But I am doing the bulk of the work anyway

Same client code can work with different subclasses:
AbstractClass says: I am doing the bulk of the work
ConcreteClass2 says: Implemented Operation1
AbstractClass says: But I let subclasses override some operations
ConcreteClass2 says: Overridden Hook1
ConcreteClass2 says: Implemented Operation2
AbstractClass says: But I am doing the bulk of the work anyway

Template Method in Other Languages

Template Method in Java Template Method in C# Template Method in PHP Template Method in Python Template Method in Ruby Template Method in Swift