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Factory Method

Factory Method in TypeScript

Factory method is a creational design pattern which solves the problem of creating product objects without specifying their concrete classes.

Factory Method defines a method, which should be used for creating objects instead of direct constructor call (new operator). Subclasses can override this method to change the class of objects that will be created.

If you can’t figure out the difference between Factories, Factory Method & Abstract Factory patterns, then read our Factory Comparison.

Learn more about Factory Method

Usage of the pattern in TypeScript

Complexity:

Popularity:

Usage examples: The Factory Method pattern is widely used in TypeScript code. It’s very useful when you need to provide a high level of flexibility for your code.

Identification: Factory methods can be recognized by creation methods, which create objects from concrete classes, but return them as objects of abstract type or interface.

Conceptual Example

This example illustrates the structure of the Factory Method design pattern. It focuses on answering these questions:

  • What classes does it consists of?
  • What roles do these classes play?
  • In what way the elements of the pattern are related?

index.ts: Conceptual Example

/**
 * The Creator class declares the factory method that is supposed to return an
 * object of a Product class. The Creator's subclasses usually provide the
 * implementation of this method.
 */
abstract class Creator {
    /**
     * Note that the Creator may also provide some default implementation of the
     * factory method.
     */
    public abstract factoryMethod(): Product;

    /**
     * Also note that, despite its name, the Creator's primary responsibility is
     * not creating products. Usually, it contains some core business logic that
     * relies on Product objects, returned by the factory method. Subclasses can
     * indirectly change that business logic by overriding the factory method
     * and returning a different type of product from it.
     */
    public someOperation(): string {
        // Call the factory method to create a Product object.
        const product = this.factoryMethod();
        // Now, use the product.
        return `Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with ${product.operation()}`;
    }
}

/**
 * Concrete Creators override the factory method in order to change the
 * resulting product's type.
 */
class ConcreteCreator1 extends Creator {
    /**
     * Note that the signature of the method still uses the abstract product
     * type, even though the concrete product is actually returned from the
     * method. This way the Creator can stay independent of concrete product
     * classes.
     */
    public factoryMethod(): Product {
        return new ConcreteProduct1();
    }
}

class ConcreteCreator2 extends Creator {
    public factoryMethod(): Product {
        return new ConcreteProduct2();
    }
}

/**
 * The Product interface declares the operations that all concrete products must
 * implement.
 */
interface Product {
    operation(): string;
}

/**
 * Concrete Products provide various implementations of the Product interface.
 */
class ConcreteProduct1 implements Product {
    public operation(): string {
        return '{Result of the ConcreteProduct1}';
    }
}

class ConcreteProduct2 implements Product {
    public operation(): string {
        return '{Result of the ConcreteProduct2}';
    }
}

/**
 * The client code works with an instance of a concrete creator, albeit through
 * its base interface. As long as the client keeps working with the creator via
 * the base interface, you can pass it any creator's subclass.
 */
function clientCode(creator: Creator) {
    // ...
    console.log('Client: I\'m not aware of the creator\'s class, but it still works.');
    console.log(creator.someOperation());
    // ...
}

/**
 * The Application picks a creator's type depending on the configuration or
 * environment.
 */
console.log('App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.');
clientCode(new ConcreteCreator1());
console.log('');

console.log('App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.');
clientCode(new ConcreteCreator2());

Output.txt: Execution result

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator1.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of the ConcreteProduct1}

App: Launched with the ConcreteCreator2.
Client: I'm not aware of the creator's class, but it still works.
Creator: The same creator's code has just worked with {Result of the ConcreteProduct2}

Factory Method in Other Languages

Design Patterns: Factory Method in Java Design Patterns: Factory Method in C# Design Patterns: Factory Method in PHP Design Patterns: Factory Method in Python Design Patterns: Factory Method in Ruby Design Patterns: Factory Method in Swift